Grand portal (liThe Last jud gment") of the Cathedral of St. Etienne, Bourges. Photo Lauros- iraudon. Western Attitudes toward DEATH: From the Middle Ages to the Present by PHILIPPE ?RIBS translated by PATRICIA M. RANUM MARION BOYARS London
A MARION BOY ARS BOOK Distributed by Calder & Boyars Ltd 18 Brewer Street London WIll.. 4AS This edition first published in Great Britain in 1976 by Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd 18 Brewer Street London WIll.. 4AS © Th e Johns Hopkins University Press 1974 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ISBN 0714 5255 1 0 Any paperback edition of this book whether published simultaneously with, or sub se quent to, t h~ case d edition is s Jd subje t to the condition that it shaU not, by way f tradc, be lent, resol d, hired ut, or otherwi se di sposed of, with ut the pub li shers' on se ll t, in any form of binding or cover other than that ill which it is published. No part of this publi . ti n may be repr du cd, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any lI1 ea n s, electro ni c, mechani ca l, phot py in g, re rding or therwi se , except bri ef extr ac ts f or the purp s s f review, without the pri or written p erm i ss ion of the copyright ow n r an d, "b'i sh T. Printed a nd bo un d in ,r eo l Ori l. in by RE DW OOD 0 liN JlM'TnO Trowbrid ge & shcr L II. III. IV. Contents Preface lX Tamed Death 1 One's Own Death 27 Thy Death 55 Forbidden Death 85 Index 109
Preface In ,espon", to the invitation of the Histmy Department of the Johns Hopkins University to lecture on the subject of history, political culture, and national consciousness, the author of Le Temps de l'Histoire and Centuries of Childhood replied that his interests had shifted considerably from the time when he had written those books. Philippe Aries continued by saying that he had lX
PREFACE been working on a history of changing attitudes toward death in Western societies since the Middle Ages. With fears about a language barrier dispelled by the assurance that there would be translations of his lectures, and with the support of the Schouler funds and the Phillip W. Haberman, Jr. , Founda- tion, it became possible to invite Philippe Aries to Hopkins to present the lectures which constitute this volume. Convinced by his research that it was indeed the culture of the United States which has played the primordial role in changing Western attitudes toward death in the twentieth century, Aries wel - comed the opportunity to present his conclusions on this side of the Atlantic and to take into ac- count the remarks of American scholars about his general conclusion regarding the effects of indus- trialization on attitudes toward death. The mem- bers of the faculty, students, and guests at Hopkins in April 1973 thus had the opportunity to listen to this outstanding pioneer in the fields of social and cultural history and to discuss his conclusions with him informally after the lectures. There proved to be no language barrier at all: Philippe Aries speaks English. But master rhetorician that he is, he did not want to diminish the force and eloquence of his spoken words
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