2004-05 Term Test 1 - (l(1(I ‘ Version A Name Student...

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Unformatted text preview: (l ) ((1 (I ‘ Version A Name Student Number Questions needing attention DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PSL 201Y Term Test 1 Tuesday, November 9, 2004, from 17:30 — 18:40 36 Questions (12 pages) DO NOT BEGIN WRITING UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. Bubble in your family name beginning in column 1 of the NAME field. Bubble in your student number, beginning in column 1 of the Student Number field There are several versions of this question paper. Each contains the same questions, but their sequence varies. Question 1 identifies the Version that you have been given. THE CODING OF THIS QUESTION ON YOUR COMPUTER CARD MUST BE DONE CORRECTLY AND APPEALS THAT A STUDENT MADE AN- ERROR WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. All questions are of equal value. Spelling and/or typing errors do not make a statement incorrect. Invigilators are not permitted to interpret questions to individual students. If you think a question is ambiguous, answer as you understand it, then explain your reasoning on your question book, 3191; on the Computer Card You must also record the question number on the line, “Questions needing attention” at the top ginning; Your computer card must be handed in at the end of the examination. 1. Fill in A on your computer card 2. Where is the most of our total body water? A) in the lumen of the kidneys B) in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract C in blood (fiinside cells E) surrounding the cells 3. The fluid compartement with a high sodium and protein concentration is called A) interstitial fluid B) plasma C) intracellular fluid @xtracellular fluid E) intracellular and extracellular fluids 4. Two cells have equal concentration gradients of cations across their membranes but in one cell the membrane potential calculated from the Nemst equation is +60mV and in the other +30mV. What is the likely cause of the difference. A) polarity of electrical charges cam'ed by the two cations concentrationdifference alence of ions D) size of the Cells ' i E) permeability of cellular membranes in the two cells 5. The chemical force for which of the following ions is directed into the cell? A) potassium B) sodium C) calcium D) both A and C @both B and c g, r". V V, 6. Any difference in energy across a membrane is considered the ........ that pushes a molecule in- one direction or the other. ‘ A) magnetic force B) antagonistic force C) carrier D channel 'ving force 7. The potassium equilibrium potential is —94mV. This means that .............. A) at the resting membrane potential of neurons, potassium is at equilibrium B) at ~94mV, the chemical force for potassium movement is zero C) at ~94mV, the electrical force for potassium movement is zero @ at —-94mV, the chemical force for potassium movement is opposed exactly by the e ectrical force E) at —-94mV, potassium movement is opposed exactly by sodium movement 8. Communication across a synapse is initiated by the release of a neurotransmitter from the ............ region of the neuron \ A ostsynaptic ‘on terminal C) persisynaptic D) dendritic E) axon hillock 9 .............. describes ion channels that are coupled to membrane receptors such that their gating properties (opening and closing) are altered by messenger binding. A) Enzyme-linked receptors B) G—protein linked channels Q‘Voltage—gated channels / @igand—gated channel , )Potential—gated channels 10. Which of the following ions can act as a second messenger? A) sodium B potassium calcium \/ D) both A and B E)‘both A and C 11. Dual innervation of organs by the autonomic nervous system refers to the observation that ............ A) two postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervate each target organ “@both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate most organs C) autonomic innervation involves preganglionic and postganglionic neurons D) autonomic and somatic neurons innervate all organs E) autonomic neurons that innervate each target organ originate from two ganglia 12. Which of the following physiological responses is associated with an Mn in parasympathetic nervous system activity? 3: shifting blood flow away from the gastrointestinal tract (0 nhanced absorption of nutrients increase heart rate ,Dh’ncreased contractile force of the heart B) enhanced mobilization of energy sources 13. Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release the transmitter ........... ; sympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter ............. ; epinephrine: norepineprhine ‘cetylcholine: norepinephiine C) norepinephrine: acetylcholine D) acetylcholine: acetylcholine E) norepinephrine: norepinephrine 14. The shortening of the a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves ......... A) the thick filaments shortening B) the thin filaments shortening @he sarcomeres shortening f D) the A bands shortening _ E) the Z lines not changing their position (( 15. Increase in the amount of cytoplasmic calcium required to initiate a muscle contraction are mediated by the coupling between a ............ on the T—tubule and a .......... on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A) dihydropyridine receptor: calcium pump dihydropyridine receptor: ryanodine receptor ryanodine receptor: calcium pump D) calcium pump: ryanodine receptor (E) calcium channel: dihydropyridine receptor (lalExcitation/contraction coupling begins with ...... and ends with ...... A) synaptic transmission : binding of calcium to troponin B) excitation of muscle cell : release of calcium into the cytoplasm C priming of actin : re-uptake of calcium @ynaptic transmission : re—uptake of calcium ‘ ) release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum: change in conformation of tropomyosin l7. Resting tidal volume is . .. A) approximately 1000 ml approximately 500 mi 6000 ml D) 4000 m1 E) 150 ml 18. The approximate ventilation for an average university student during strenuous exercise (near their V02 max) is . . . - A) ~ 201iters/min B ~3501iters/min @420 liters/min D) ~ 60001iters/min E) ~ 500 liters/min Ema: of the following two measurements gives a good estimate of respiratory efficiency? A) Resting tidal volume and dead space. B) Alveolar and anatomical dead space. Inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volume. Vital capacity and how quickly you can exhale your maximal inspiration (F-E-V- 15x)- E) The volume of a coffee cup and a basketball. 20. Typical normal values for PA, coz and PA, 52 are A) 46 mm Hg and 147 mm Hg. B) 0 mm Hg and 147 mm Hg. C 40mmHgandlmmHg. 40mmHgand/100mmHg. 46 mm Hg and 40 mmHg. / ((5 21. Physiological dead space is that volume of gas ...... J A) that does not take part in gas exchange. that is left in the lungs after a maximal expiration. C) that does take part in gas exchange. D) that is left in the lungs after a normal expiration. E) that is similar in % composition to room air. 22. At a P02 of 100 mmHg blood contains . . .. A) ~ 55 ml of 02 per 100 ml blood. B) ~ 10 ml of 02 per 100 ml blood. C ~ 16 ml of 02 per 100 ml blood. ~ 20 ml of 02 per 100 ml blood. E) ~ 0 ml of 02 in simple solution. 23. Which of the following statements is/are correct? With hyperventilation the 02 dissociation curve I) shifts to the right. II) shifts to the left. III) does not change its position but the C02 dissociation curve does. IV) is an exact replica (in terms of shape) of the C02 dissociation curve. A)r‘1 B) I, II 11,111 D ILIV 24. With a shift of the 02 dissociation curve to the left as compared to the position of the curve as it relates to normal breathing (for the same drop in arterial to venous P02), \ A) more oxygen will be released. B) there will be no change in oxygen release. C) the curve will change from a S shape to a more linear one. D) the curve will change from a linear shape to an S shape. @ less oxygen will be released 25. The oxygen dissolved in the blood, outside the red blood cell .. . A) is of no significance. B) is a greater volume than that carried by the red blood cells. -C) is significant because it establishes the pressure of the gas. D) is sufficient'in volume at sea level to keep a person alive during severe Co inhalation. E) is ~20 ml per 100 ml blood at P02 of 100 mm Hg. 26. Which of the following statements is/are true? I) Exercise below the Ventilatory Threshold is likely to increase V02 max and the anaerobic threshold 11) Exercise at the Ventilatory Threshold can increase V02 max and the anaerobic threshold (as well as the ventilatory threshold). III) An indication that you are at or close to your Ventilatory Threshold is when . you begin to hear your breathing while jogging/walking briskly (the “breath sound check”). IV) The “Talk Test” is an indicator that your exercise is aerobic and the primary energy supply is the Kreb’s cycle. V) When you are near to “speechless” you are close to or at your V02 max. A)II,lI,V B)I,II,II[ C)]I[,IV,V )II,I[I,IV II,HI,IV,V «4 27. A summer student increased the intracellular concentration of K” in a nerve cell by injecting a solution of potassium succinate into the cell. The rgslngrngnwbrfl _ potential will \\ ' A) stay the same ' ‘ B) become more negative /€)’ become more positive D) willreach the threshold potential ) open the sodium gates iv extracellular fluid (squid ringer). A glass microelectrode is inserted into the axon and the potential monitored on an oscilloscope. The following observation is made on the oscilloscope -70 mV At the point of the arrow, ten'odotoxin ('ITX), a sodium channel blocker, is added . the dish. After addition of TI'X, the membrane potential will: be the same as before TI'X was added B) becomehyperpolarized /€Y become depolarized D) produce action potentials E) produce a contraction 29. An action potential recorded from a giant squid axon is shown below: +60 mV - -70 mV ~- The peak of the action potential does not reach ENa because: of inactivation of voltage gated Na+ channels B) of ch K+ conductance ”k C) driving force for Na+ is increasing D) all or none principle E) influx of chloride ions 30. 31. 32. 33. Mr Huff Puff exhales normally; then using forced expiration, he exhales as much air as possible. The volume of air still remaining in his lungs is called: (ONE CORRECI‘) A) expiratory reserve volume _ B) vital capacity volume C » tidal volume residual volume E) '7 dead space his expired air k4 \is 4%. What is the volume of the dead space? (ONE In a certain subj> t at rest, the fidal volume is 600 ml. If his alveolarQO; is 6% and CQRRH'II‘) 0.0% 1 too ML e {"9 m}. A 400ml \(Mu czw’wc ®§ 200ml Y r 43:70 3; its“ E) 20ml M iv Timmy . An individual has a residual volume offliters, a vital capacity offiiters, a functional residual capacity diggers and a tidal volume of 0.7 liters. What is the total lung volume of this individual? We A) 6 liters B) 9.7 liters C) 8.7 liters (fl 8 liters E) 7.3 liters You have constructed a system with 2 beakers separated by a special semi— permeable membrane, into which you’ve inserted several thousand Na+ + ATPase transporters. In the left beaker you place 15 mM N aCl and 5 mM KCI, while in e right aker you place 10 mM Na? and 10 mM KCI. Which of the following is true: % the system is at‘ngum‘so there will be no net movement of solute or solvent. B) the volume in the left beaker will rise. C the volume in the right beaker will rise. 6 the concentration of potassium in the left beaker will rise. 10 34. , Identify the one CORRECT statement with regards to the activities on cell transport mechanisms and permeability A) B) D) /Er If two solutions having different osmolarities are separated by a water— permeable membrane, there will be no change in the volume of the two compartments if the membrane is impermeable to solutes If a cell is kept in an hypertonic solution, water will move from the solution into the cell, causing the cell to’expand If enough water enters the cell, the cell will eventually burst If a membrane separates a solution of higher osmolarity and a solution of , lower osmolatity. To prevent flow of water across the membrane, pressure should be applied to’solution of higher osmolarity The solute concentration is directly proportional to the solvent concentration Osmosis is the movement of molecules across a membrane that requires the expenditure of cellular energy 35. Which of the following are true in isometric contraction? _1. Force generated remains constant @The muscle length stays constant 3. Force generated is greater than the load @orce generated is less than the load 5. There is no active force generated A) @D C) D) E) 1 and 5 2 and 4 3 all of the above none of the above 11 36. Below is the tracing of the skeletal muscle activity, when the muscle fiber was stimulated at various voltages. In the recording below, the latency period: Single V Fume» lama) _ A) varies with the stimulusfiintensity because the events of excitation- contraction coupling must occur before crossbridge cycling and hence force generation can begin 73) remains constant because the events of excitation-contraction coupling must occur before crossbridge cycling and hence force generation can begin C) represents the electrical event of the skeletal muscle fiber D) remains constant because of the time lag between the mechanical and electrical events of the skeletal muscle fibers ' E) cannot be measured 12 \ '\ V (.3 I ...
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