Term Test 3_2001-02 and 2002-03

Term Test 3_2001-02 - 7’7 6'10 4 0 gnaw(322 payday max I 26902 Regarding the small intestine A B C D The small intestine starts at the lower

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Unformatted text preview: 7’7. 6. '10. 4 0. gnaw/(322' payday, max? I 26902. Regarding the small intestine: A. B. C. D The small intestine starts at the lower esophageal sphincter and ends at the ileocecal valve. The majority of digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine. Microvilli can be seen with the naked eye and are required for mixing the _ chyme in the intestine. . Segmentation along the small intestine propels the chyme forward toward the large intestine. Regarding the large intestine: A. POP“ Increased osmolarity due to the presence of lactose in the lumen of the large intestine can lead to diarrhea in people who are lactose intolerant. Absorption in the large intestine occurs across villi. ’ The majority of digestion occurs in the large intestine. Water cannOt be absorbed in'the large intestine. Regarding the'Liver: A. B. 4c. _ D. Cytochrome P450 enzymes, secreted by the liver, act to emulsify fat. . One way the liver acts to detoitify the blood is by excreting some exogenous v agents along with the bile. ‘ 3 The prodUcts of digestion absorbed into the blood capillaries in the small intestine go to the liver via the hepatic vein. In cirrhosis, damaged liver lobules are regenerated and liver function is ~ enhanced. Regarding the Pancreas: A; . B.‘ . A c. D‘. Amylase is released rapidly by the pancreas to'avoid pancreatic digestion Pancreatic lipase is released by the Islets of Langerhans ' V Pancreatic enzymes are activated by enteroldnases present on the intestinal brush border Secretin which is continually released by cells in the duodenum stimulates trypsin release fi’om the pancreas With regards to carbohydrate digestion: A B. C. D. carbohydrate digestion begins in the stomach carbohydrate digestion stops in the stomach “carbohydrate digestion stops in the small intestine carbohydrate digestion begins in small intestine 1 n4”? 16; Insulin's actions include (one correct) . ,3 A ' Insertion of‘imsmimsensitiyeglucosenzar‘isfirters into the plasma membrane of liver cells. B. Stimulation of amino acid entry into muscle cells. C. Inhibition of reabsorption of glucose from the renal tubules. D. ' Stimulation of fat breakdown in the adipose tissue. 17. The most common cause of death in diabetes mellitus is (one correct) A. Stroke. B. Renal failure. C. Heart attack. D. Diabetic coma. 18. The following may be present in anterior pituitary failure in children (one incorrect) A. Retarded growth. . Absence of puberty. rr' C. _ Diabetes mellitus. D. Hypothyroidism. ' "‘ ” . 19. Estrogen (one incorrect) “A. Receptors are present in bone. B. Receptors are present in the uterus. C. Is not produced in the luteal part of the cycle. D. " Can act in positive feed-back fashion on the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. _ 20. Insulin-like growth factor 1 stimulates growth of long bones by (one correct) A Increasing the activity of osteoblasts (cells that form bone). B. . Stimulating the proliferation of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal plate. C. Decreasing the activity of osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone). D. f Stimulating the proliferation of cartilage cells in the joints. 21. Regarding firel metabolism (one incorrect) A." Glucose can be converted to fat. During feeding, low glucagon secretion stimulates glucose utilization in muscle. ,. IB- - ‘ C. _ liven afier an overnight fast there is some protein breakdown. : ..D. During fasting, muscle uses more fatty acids than glucose. Sof7 27. synaptic potentials (One Correct): A Result fiom G—protein mediated receptor activation by- neurotransmitters, B. Result fi'om activation of ionotropic receptors intitiating a Series of biochemical reactions C. Can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing D. Are conducted along axons 28. Which of the following happens first during the events leading to the release of neurotransmitter substance from synaptic knob? ' ' A. Synaptic. vesicles fiise with the synaptic knob membrane B. Calcium diffuses into the synaptic knob C. The presynaptic neuron depolarizes ‘D. ‘Neurotransmitter substance binds to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron 29. With regard tojsomatosensory system (One Correct): A. Sensory homunculus and dorsal horn are found on the same gyrus in the cerebral cortex B. Typically, the face will occupy a smaller area of the sensory cortex than the leg " I C. Sensory perception is independent of sensory transduction _ " a D. Anterolateral and Dorsal-Column are the ascending tracts involved in somatic sensations 30. Which stimulus is NOT likely to produce pain A. A pinch of salt applied onto the sensory nerve ending B. Rupture of tissue surrounding the sensory nerve ending C. Application of enkephalin to the spinal cord - D. Application of glutamate to the spinal cord 7of7 DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PSL ZOOY / 201Y Bubble in your family name beginning in column 1 ofthe NAME field. 1 of the Student Number 2. Bubble in your student mmber,.beginning in column field _ 3. There are seVeral ve ions of this question paper. Eac varies. Question, 1 iden questions, but their sequence typing errors do not make a statemEnt 5. Spelling and! or 6. Invigilators are not permitted to interpret questions to individual students. Ifyou answer as you understand it, then‘explain your think a question is ambiguous, not on the Answer Card. You must also record ‘ .x reasoning on your question book, ___ _ . the Question number on the 11116, “Questions needing attention” at the top of this page. 7. Your computer card must be handed in at the end of the examination. ‘ l". FilIin A on your computer sheet 2. Steroid hormones (one‘correct) ayfie synthesized from tyrosine. b) bind to receptors in thecytoplasm called hormone/response elements. c) diffiise into the ancleus and bind directly to DNA. d) circulate in the blood freely, not bound to plasma proteins. . " e) alter the transcription of genes that have hormone response elements. 3. The following are steps involved in the activation of the CAMP second messenger system. Put the steps in the correct order. 1) hormone binds to its receptor. 2) adenylate cyclase is activated. 3) cAMP is produced. 4) specific proteins are phosphorylated. 5) protein lcinase A is activated. 6) a G protein is activated. 4. The hypothalamus and pituitary are important for the regulation of much of the endocrine system. Which of the following is correct? .. { a)"Hormones released into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation travel to the posterior pituitary. . . b) Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones alter the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones I I c) The cell bodies of neuroendocrine cells that release hormones from the posterior pituitary are found in the anterior pituitary. d) Growth hormone (GH), oxytocin, and follicle stimulating hormone (F SH) are all released from the anterior pituitary. V -~ e) A single cell in the anterior pituitary is capable of releasing all of the difi‘erent types of -- anterior pituitary hormones. ' - ' .() C a - 5. Which of the following; is an effect of growth hormone (GH)? 21) Increased lipogenesis. b) Increased bone resorption. c) Increased protein synthesis. _ d) Inhibited release of insulin-like growth factors (IGF). e) Increased reabsorption of Ca2+. by the kidney. ‘ 6. Gaiters may be observed in people with iodine deficiency or in people with Graves’ disease. The plasma concentrations of which of the following hormones would be different if the two groups were compared? a) Triiodotyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) only. b) ThyrotroPin-releasing hormone (TRH) only. c) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (T SH) only. d) T3, T4, and TSH only. e) T3, T4, TSH, and TRI-I would'all bedifferent. 7. The following are steps in the synthesis of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Put them in the correct order. 1) T3 and T4 are cleaved fi'om thyroglobulin. 2) Iodide is attached to tyrosine on thyroglobulin in the colloid. 3) Iodinated tyrosines are linked. - 4 4) T3 and T4 are released into the blood. ~ 5) Iodide is taken into the follicular cell. 7 v, a) 1,2,3,4,5 b) 2,5,4,1,3 c) 5,2,1,3,4 d) 5,2,3,1,4 e) 2,5,3,1,4 8. Cortisol (one correct) a) increases plasma free fatty acid levels. b) increases bone mineralization. c) decreases plasma amino acid levels. d) activates the immune system. 9)’decreases plasma glucose. 9. Aldosterone (one Correct) a) release is stimulated by an increase in plasma concentrations of K". b) causes a decrease in the reabsorption of Na+ at the distal convoluted tubule. . c) is released from the posterior pituitary gland. » d) release leads to a decrease in blood pressure. e) is synthesized from amino acids. 10. During an operation to remove the thyroid gland, a surgeon mistakenly also removed ' the patient’s parathyroid glands. What would subsequently be observed in the patient? . a) Dehydration. 7 b) Increased synthesis of Vitamin D3. c) Bone formation. . - d) Low blood calcium concentrations. e) None of the above. l 1. Which of the following concerning the regulation of plasma calcium concentrations is ' correct? a) Calcitriol is produced in the skin by sunlight. ' ’ b) Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium. - c) Calcitonin increases the resorption of bone. ‘ ' ' d) Calcitonin is released fiom cells in the parathyroid e) Parathyroid hormone inhibits the synthesis of calcihiol. 12. The release of insulin is stimulated by a) increased uptake of glucose into adipose tissue. b) decreased plasma amino acid concentrations. c) acetylcholine. I , d) activation of the sympathetic nervous system; e) decreased plasma glucose concentrations. _ _ 13._Which of the following statements is correct? / v a) The release of glucagon is directly stimulated by insulin. b) The release of glucagon is stimulated by low concentrations of plasma amino acids. c)’Destruction of the glucagon-producing cells of the islets of Langerhans causes diabetes mellitus. d) Glucagon increases plasma concentrations of glucose. e) The main target tissue of glucagon is muscle. 14. The same hypothalamic hormone and anterior pituitary hormones regulate gametogenesis and hormone production in males and females. Which one of the following is a difference between males and females in this regulatory system? a) Follicle-stimulating hormone (F SH) stimulates gametogenesrs only m males. b) Luteinizing hormone (LI-I) stimulates steroid hormone productio n 3 females. ) Increased levels of certain steroids maystimulate gonadotropin~releasing hormone file nRgi-fiieleaseonly in females. _ _ :1 d) Lu hormonegdirectly stimulates gametogenesis only in males. J / e) 'Inhibin is produced in the gonads only in females. 5 t/ ~ 7 15. In the sexually mature male (one correct) a) Follicle-stimulating hormone (F SH) binds to Sertoli cells. b)"‘spermatogonia contain 23 chromosomes. , c) Sertoli cells secrete large amounts of testosterone. d) newly formed spermatozoa pass quickly through the epididymis. e) Leydig cells are found inside the seminiferous tubules. 16. During the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (one correct) . . a)"Estrogens inhibit the release of LH and FSH. b) Androgens are converted to estrogens in the thecal cells. c) The LH surge occurs. ' d) Estrogen levels are maximal. e) The endometrium reaches its maximum thickness. ‘ 17. Which of the following is NOT an effect of estrogen females? ‘ a)/Closure of the epiphyseal plate. b) Increased risk of atherosclerosis. c) Breast development. d) Distribution of fat to hips. e) Maintenance of bone density. 18. Epinephrine is known to act by stimulating the cAMP second messenger system. What would be observed upon the binding of epinephrine to its receptor? 3 a) The hormone receptor complex would move to the nucleus and bind to DNA. b) The activity of protein lcinase A would decrease. ’ c) The Get subunit would dissociate from the other G protein subunits. d) The activity of adenylate cyclase would decrease. we) All of the proteins in the cell would be phosphorylated. ; 19.. Central nervous system axons are myelinated by (one correct): a) Schwann cells ,/ -» b) Micro glia ' r , g c) Astrocytes d) Oligodendrocytes 20. Which of the following statements concerning the cranial nerves is true: a) cranial nerve I is important for visual sensation b) cranial nerve II controls movements of the eyes c) cranial nerve V has both motor and sensory functions d) cranial nerve X contains only sensory afferents from the viscera 21. The :node of Ranvier refers to : a) the division of an axon into two collaterals b) the regular division of the Schwann cell by unmyelinated fibres c) the regular interruption of myelin along the length of myelinated fibres d) the space between the cells in the CNS that is filled by cerebrospinal fluid 6) the transition zone between a receptor and the afferent nerve fibre ' ’ "22', Which of the following statements is false: a) sensory afferents travel in the dorsal roots, and motor efferents travel in the ventral ‘ roots of the spinal cord ' ‘ . b) unmyelinated fibres generally have smaller diameters than myelinated fibres c) umyelinated fibres generallyconduct slower than myelinated fibres d) a cutaneous nerve has no motor efferents 23. Which of the following will not lead to a decrease in conduction velocity of a nerve. a) decreasing the diameter of the nerve fibre b) loss of myelination through degeneration c) decrease in the resting potential by about 10 mV d) a doubling in the value of the length constant (lambda) 24. Which one of the following transmitters involves glial cells in their life cycle? a) noradrenaline b) dopamine a c) nitric oxide d) neuropetide Y’ 25. Which of the following statement is false: a) activation of metabotropic. receptors does not alter ion channel fimction b) Ionotropic receptors have a faster time course of action on the cell than metabotropic receptors , a c) Metabotmpic receptors are also called G-protein coupled receptors d) Both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors undergo conformational changes following binding of the transmitter 26. Which of the following concerning NMDA receptors is false: 21) long term changes in membrane characteristics may follow NMDA receptor activation ~ - b) NMDA receptor activation leads to increased conduction of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions. c) at normal resting potential the channel is blocked by manganese ions d) NIVIDA receptor has binding sites for 2 glutamate molecules . v - '2]. Which of the following concerning sensory sensation is true normal temperature (i.e. 35 °C) . b) warm thermoreceptors are much more common than cold ~ ‘ . c) the specificity of nerves for their adequate stimulus is due in large part to specialized nerve endings ' ‘ . « . d) hair cells in the ear can be classified as chemoreceptorsbecause they sense K+ ' a) cold thermoreceptors show decreased activity in response to cooling of the skin at 28. Which of the following concerning sensory sensation is false a) free nerve endings cannot detect light touch stimuli such at tickle b) Pacinian corpuscles detect vibration and deep pressure c) Merkel discs can detect sustained touch and pressure ‘ d) Meissner corpuscles can detect slow vibratiOns' 29. Complete the following to make a trueistatement concerning audition. a) The scala' media and scala tympani are connected to each other at: b) the round window ‘c) the oval Window d) the helicotrema e) they are not connected at all; they are separate structures .30. Select the correct statement concerning the retina of mammals. a) Retinal illumination gives rise to depolarization of photoreceptors b) Retinal illumination gives rise” to hyperpolarization of photoreceptors c) the photoreceptor potential does not change with illumination ' d) there is a logaritlunic’relationship between incident light and photoreceptor potentials - 31. Which of the following statement concerning the ear and hearing is false: a)‘ low tones vibrate the basilar membrane near the round window b) high tones vibrate the basilar membrane near the oval window 0) the middle ossicles transmit sound waves in air to pressure waves in the perilymph d) the round window serves to compensate for movements of the oval window . “"3 , \,.._ ‘ ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2011 for the course PSL 201 taught by Professor Wojtowicz during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Term Test 3_2001-02 - 7’7 6'10 4 0 gnaw(322 payday max I 26902 Regarding the small intestine A B C D The small intestine starts at the lower

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