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c161l33_11_24 - Hybrids using d-orbitals With expanded...

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Hybrids using d Hybrids using d - - orbitals orbitals W With expanded octets there are more than 4 things around the central atom W Need at least one orbital for each after we’ve used the s and the 3 p-orbitals for sp 3 , what’s left? the d-orbitals W New hybrids 5 things - need one d-orbital dsp 3 (can be written sp 3 d) 6 things - d 2 sp 3 (or sp 3 d 2 )
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More about multiple bonds More about multiple bonds W Our description of multiple bonds accounts for a number of things strength -double bonds are stronger than single bonds but weaker than 2 singles. A π -bond is weaker than a σ -bond shape - rotation around a single bond is fine, but orientation is fixed with double bonds. The same p-orbital has to overlap to produce a double bond.
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Delocalized MOs Delocalized MOs W One way to explain resonance is to invoke delocalized orbitals W Most orbitals we limit to 2 atoms. They are localized W If we can extend the orbital over more atoms, we delocalize the electrons
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π * 2 π * 1 π 2 π 1 ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ Example Example
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