Chapter_08_Outline

Chapter_08_Outline - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations,...

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Chapter 8: Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table All orbitals in a subshell are not at the same energy in a multi electron atom. Electron configurations are demonstrated, and then the rules for writing electron configurations are given. The aufbau principle leads into using the periodic table to determine electron configurations. Periodic atomic properties are summarized and their trends given: atomic and ionic size, ionization potential, electron affinity, and number of unpaired electrons. The location of metals, nonmetals, and noble gases in the periodic table is followed by a description of chemical properties based on periodic location. Summary/Objectives of Sections 8.1 Multielectron Atoms Atoms that contain more than one electron are more complicated than hydrogen-like atoms due to the repulsions of the electrons. The main effect is on the energies. First, the energy of each orbital gets lower as the charge on the nucleus increases. Second, the subshells within a level are of different energies in a many-electron atom. This section connects this chapter to the last one and warns of these differences. OBJECTIVE: Describe the main differences between orbitals of a hydrogen atom and equivalent orbitals in a multi electron atom. 8.2 An Introduction to Electron Configurations Rather than beginning with a number of rules and applying them to obtain electron configurations, some sample configurations are presented first and commented on. The student becomes familiar with the notations that will be used to display configurations, and confronts some of the questions that may arise later. This should mean that the student will answer those questions as the new material is encountered. OBJECTIVE: Know how to write subshell notation and the corresponding orbital diagram. 8.3 The Rules for Electron Configurations Continual emphasis is placed on the fact that the rules governing electron configuration are based on experiment, and some of these experimental results are included in the discussion. The rules are the common ones of lowest energy sublevels filled first, the Pauli principle, and Hund’s rule. The energy order of the subshells is simply listed and referred forward to the organization of the periodic table. OBJECTIVE: Know the principles that determine electron configurations and how to write electron configurations. 8.4 Electron Configurations: The Aufbau Principle The aufbau process is used to predict the electron configurations of the first ten elements, which are given in detail. Those of the third period are referenced and detailed consideration begins again with K, Ca, and Sc, to make two points. First, that the 4 s sublevel fills before the 3 d sublevel and second that electron configurations will be written with the sublevels of the same shell together, rather than the order in which the sublevels are filled. The configurations of the elements of the first transition series are given, and the anomalies posed by Cr and Cu are explained.
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Chapter_08_Outline - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations,...

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