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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 10. Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure An extensive discussion of VSEPR theory provides the basis for determining molecular shapes and dipole moments of molecules. Discussion of valence bond theory begins with consideration of atomic orbital overlap, which is improved by hybridization. A consequence is the formation of (pi) bonds in molecules with double bonds. Summary/Objective of Sections 10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Method All of VSEPR theory is presented in this section. One begins with the Lewis structure of the species to determine the number of valence shell electron groups. From this one obtains the electron-pair geometry and finally the molecular shape. The emphasis is on species with two, three, and four valence electron pairs. Molecules with more than one central atom are analyzed one central atom at a time. O BJECTIVES : Describe molecules in terms of geometrical shapes. Know the difference between electron-group geometry and molecular geometry. Know the geometric arrangement of electron groups. Apply VSEPR theory to determine molecular geometry. Predict molecular shapes for molecules with more than one central atom. 10.2 Polar Molecules and Dipole Moments The shape of a molecule allows one to predict whether the molecule is polar, when that molecular shape is combined with the polarity of the bonds that are present in the molecule. Molecular polarity will enable us to predict properties of bulk matter. O BJECTIVE : Define a dipole moment and predict whether a molecule will have a dipole moment. 10.3 Atomic Orbital Overlap Here are the basic principles of valence bond theory, that a bond is the result of overlap of atomic orbitals and more extensive overlap leads to stronger bonds. O BJECTIVE : Describe valence bond theory. 10.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Hybridization enables one to predict the bonding in a molecule, to obtain the correct number of orbitals that point in the appropriate direction. The hybridization of the central atom is determined by the number of valence shell electron pairs surrounding the atom. The emphasis is on sp , sp 2 ,and sp 3 , hybridization schemes. O BJECTIVES : Describe hybridization of atomic orbitals. Predict hybridization and orbital overlap in a molecule. 10.5 Hybrid Orbitals and Multiple Covalent Bonds Hybridization enables us to describe how multiple bonds form. Sigma and pi bonds are described and distinguished. Restricted rotation around a double bond leads to geometric isomers. The discussion deals entirely with the multiple bonds of second-period elements. O BJECTIVE : Predict the hybridization used in forming multiple bonds. Describe geometric isomers and the bonding that leads to geometric isomers....
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