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Lecture 5 fermentation and respiration

Lecture 5 fermentation and respiration - Fermentation uses...

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Fermentation uses “internally balanced redox reactions” to generate ATP. 1. a Carbon compound gets oxidized, generating high-energy intermediate and reducing an e- carrier 2. ATP generated by substrate-level phosphorylation 3. NADH oxidized to NAD+ by reducing product of (2) and/or reducing protons from water, generating H 2
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There are many, many forms of reduced carbon, and many, many ways to oxidize them. Glycolysis is one way to oxidize glucose for fermentation.
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Identify the step in this process where carbon is oxidized. Which carbon atom is oxidized? What gets reduced?
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sugars : hexoses, pentoses, you name it. amino acids : Ala, Glu, His, Asp, Gly, Ser, Try, Thr, Homoserine, Homocysteine, Met, Leu, Ile, Val, Phe, Arg... organic acids : lactate, acrylate, malate, fumarate, succinate, citrate, butyrate... alcohols : ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, resorcinol... purines/pyrimidines, precursors : Agmatine, allantoin, uracil, cytosine, adenine, thymine... Almost any organic compound can be oxidized as part of a fermentation. How can you tell an organic compound is getting oxidized?
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ATP is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation*
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There are many alternatives for oxidizing NADH + H + back to NAD + . Often, CO 2 and H 2 are produced as well as organic acids and alcohols.
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Fermentation is a nearly universal way to generate energy.
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