2011 vascular system Lecture two handout

2011 vascular system Lecture two handout - (=kardiak, gr.)...

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The Circulatory System II The Heart (=kardiak, gr.) In mammals, birds and fish, the heart pumps blood through the body as part of a “ closed system” . Human: 280 L/h Shark (slow swimming): 7.5 L/h Chicken: 24 L/h Giraffe: 1,200 L/h Volume can increase 5-fold with increasing heart rate. Fish Birds Mammals http://www.biosci.uga.edu/almanac/bio_104/notes/may_7.html . Amphibians, Reptiles The cardiovascular system can be a single (fish) or a double system (birds and mammals). Fish Single system 1 atrium 1 ventricle Lungfish, Amphibians, Reptiles Intermediate systems 2 atria, 1 ventricle Mammals, Birds Double system 2 atria, 2 ventricles Systemic circuit Pulmonary circuit Fish Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Generally, the fish heart has two chambers: 1 atrium 1 ventricle The Fish Heart Birds and Mammals Four chambers: 2 atria, 2 ventricles The cardiovascular system is completely divided into a pulmonary (pulmo=the lung) and a systemic (systema=the whole) circuit.
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The 4-chambered heart is characteristic of warm- blooded animals (birds, mammals: homeothermic). ¾ Complete separation of oxygenated from deoxygenated blood (septum). ¾ Helps maximize oxygen supply for the relatively high metabolism and maintenance of a constant body temperature. Reptiles and amphibians have a less efficient oxygen supply system. They are “poikilo-/ectothermic” (poikilo=various, gr.) and do not need to maintain a constant body temperature. In fish, no separation is needed, because only one circuit exists. Fish are also “cold-blooded”. Pulmonary circulation: Pumps blood to the lungs (release of CO 2 ; uptake of oxygen); Right ventricle to left atrium. Systemic circulation: Pumps blood to organs and body (release of oxygen; uptake of CO 2 ); Left ventricle to right atrium. Coronary circulation: Pumps blood through the heart (part of systemic circulation); LV to RA! from lungs to body from body to lungs to lungs Major Blood Vessels Aorta (aorte=the great artery, lat.): – the largest artery that carries blood from the heart to head and body (LV). Vena cava (= hollow vein): – the largest vein that carries deoxygenated blood from body (caudal vena cava) and head (cranial vena cava) directly to the heart (RA). Coronary arteries and veins Pulmonary arteries and veins to body from body to lungs to lungs from lungs 4-Chambered Heart Pulmonary Artery (to lung) Pulmonary vein (from lung) Vena cava (from body) Aorta (to body) Coronary vein Coronary artery From “Bodyworlds”
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Tissues of the Heart Endocardium = endothelial (single squamous epithelium) lining of the heart Myocardium = cardiac muscle of the heart wall
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2011 for the course APC 100 taught by Professor Kelliewhited during the Spring '07 term at UC Davis.

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2011 vascular system Lecture two handout - (=kardiak, gr.)...

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