APC 100 GI Powerpoint 2011

APC 100 GI Powerpoint 2011 - APC 100 NPB123 Digestive...

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APC 100 NPB123 Digestive System Jim Sharp DVM,PhD jwsharp@ucdavis.edu
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OBJECTIVES OF DIGESTIVE LECTURES AND LABS Recognize basic features common to all alimentary canals. Recognize specialized features found in fishes, birds and mammals that reflect their ecological niche. Develop concepts of the architecture and specializations of the digestive system Students should be able to describe and to recognize general features of digestive systems Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomical features which distinguish fishes, birds and mammals.
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Back to the Beginning Oral Cavity Oral Pharynx Esophagus Food comes into the mouth and is processed by chewing in the oral cavity Food material passes via the oral pharynx into the esophagus; bypassing the entrance into the respiratory system
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Oral Cavity and Pharynx of Birds and Fish Birds have oral cavity and pharynx much like mammals; except No teeth Palatine fissure between oral cavity and nasal pharynx Fish have combined oropharynx Teeth any place in oropharynx
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Structures of the Oral Cavity Tongue Functions: prehending, maceration, swallowing food; chemoreception Mammals have muscular tongue Bird’s tongue with variable musculature ; typically little Entoglossal bone Movement via musculature associated with hyoid apparatus Lizard’s tongue: Tongue used to capture prey Tongue often has chemosensory function Fish’s tongue An angular elevation in the ventral oropharynx Overlies the hyoid cartilages (hyoid apparatus). No musculature.
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Oral Glands Mammals Mammals have salivary glands Wets food; helps with movement into esophagus Some digestive enzymes Parotid, mandibular, sublingual glands Birds have no salivary glands Goblets cells in oral epithelium and mucus glands Few if any digestive enzymes Fish Goblet cells in oropharynx No digestive enzymes
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Structure of Generic Tooth Crown above gum line; root below Outside layer Enamel; cementum Dentin (bone-like) Odontoblasts Pulp Nerves vessels Dentin Enamel Cement Bone Artery Nerve Vein Odontoblasts Crown Root
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Formation of Teeth Teeth develop much like Placoid Scales Enamel is formed by ameloblasts; generated by epidermal tissue. Dentin is formed from underlying dermal tissue that pushes into the epidermal tissue forming a dermal papilla Dermal papilla (Dentin) Enamel Organ
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Varieties of Teeth Acrodont and Pleurodont teeth are loosely attached to gum Arcodont teeth are attached at the top or inside of the gum. Typical of fish. Pleurodont teeth are attached to the outside of the gum.These are typical of lizards Thecodont teeth are attached in a socket within the gum Typical for mammalian teeth
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Mammals have Heterodont Teeth (I) Incisors Cutting, prehension (C) Canine Killing, tearing (P) Premolars (M) Molars Crushing
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APC 100 GI Powerpoint 2011 - APC 100 NPB123 Digestive...

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