APC 100 Neuro Powerpoint 2011 part 2

APC 100 Neuro Powerpoint 2011 part 2 - Nervous Nervous...

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Nervous System Anatomy and Functional Organization Part II Jim Sharp DVM, PhD [email protected] APC Anatomy 100
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Cells of the Central Nervous System Neurons basic unit of NS Basic structure of neuron Dendrites Axon (much longer) square4 Antegrade, retrograde axonal transport The Neuron Action Potential Dendrites Axon Branches Synapse Soma Dendrites square4 Many, branched square4 Never myelinated square4 Ribosome,RER square4 No action potential Axon square4 Single, +/- branches square4 +/- Myelin square4 No ribosomes, RER square4 Action potentials
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Neuron Structure Basic elements of a neuron Soma-cell body Dendrite Axon
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Types of Neurons 4 basic types Multipolar Neuron square4 Multiple dendrites square4 Single axon square4 CNS neurons synapse synapse Unipolar Dendrite and axon Branch from single process Bipolar Neuron square4 One dendrite, one axon square4 Hearing, vision Pseudounipolar Neuron square4 No dendrite square4 Axon with central & peripheral parts square4 Sensory synapse synapse
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Classification of Neurons Sensory Info to CNS Motor CNS to effectors Intereurons Connect sensory to motor neurons Associative Neuron Connect to other interneurons Inhibitory Associative neurons Interneurons Connect regions
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Neuroglial Cells Neurons are metabolically very active – require support Glial cells are supportive O2, nutrients, extracellular ion balance Structure Electrical insulation Destroy microorganisms, clean cell debris Glial cells include CNS Astroctes Oligiodendrocytes Microglial cells PNS Schwann cells Satellite cells
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Neuroglial Cells CNS Astrocytes Primary supportive cells in CNS Fibrous – white matter Protoplasmic – grey matter Metabolic support Oxygen Nitrients – glucose Ion balance Remove waste products Processing of neurotransmitters Limit spread of excitation
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Protoplasmic Astrocyte
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Neuroglial Cells CNS Oligodendrocytes Myelin in CNS Wraps multiple axons Microglial cells Small condensed looking cells Immune function Clean up cellular debris
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Neuroglial Cells PNS Schwann cells Myelin in PNS Wraps portion of single axon Metabolic support Satellite cells Functions similar to astrocytes General metabolic support
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