Musculoskeletal_System Lectures_I-IV_LARGE SIZE

Musculoskeletal_Syst - Musculoskeletal System I II The Skeleton an overview Cartilage and Bone III Bone development and Joints IV Ligaments Tendons

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Musculoskeletal System I. The Skeleton: an overview II. Cartilage and Bone III. Bone development and Joints IV. Ligaments, Tendons and Muscle Musculoskeletal System Laboratory Richard E. Connon: [email protected]
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Musculoskeletal system I The Skeleton: an overview
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1.Bone provides general structural support for the whole body and give us shape. Bone Facts
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2. Bone provides protection for the brain (skull) and internal organs (ribs, pelvis). Bone Facts
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3. Bone provides a structural framework for the bone marrow (source of all blood cells and musculoskeletal cell progenitors). Bone Facts
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4. Bone provides attachment sites for muscles. Bone Facts
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5. Bones act as levers; joints are the fulcrums or pivot points aiding efficient locomotion. Bone Facts
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6. Bone provides a mineral reservoir of calcium and phosphate. Bone Facts
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7. Excellent biomaterial: bone is strong but light, it can adapt to functional demands and can self repair. Bone Facts
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Long (Tubular) Short Flat (Tabular) Shapes of Whole Bones
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Long Bones: • Longer in one direction than in the other. • Cross section is roughly circular. • Wall thickness 1/5th overall diameter. • Hollow in the midsection (medullar cavity). • Expanded at the ends. Shapes of Whole Bones
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• Ends usually covered with articular hyaline cartilage. • Many flanges, ridges and tubercles for attachment of muscles and ligaments. • Function as levers for locomotion. • Designed to carry compressive and bending loads. Long Bones
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Diaphysis Metaphysis Epiphysis Physis: growth plate Long Bone Regions From Greek Physis: phyein: to generate
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Shapes of Whole Bones Short Bones: • Roughly the same size in all directions. • Thin cortices. • Filled with trabecular bone. • Compressive loads over short distances.
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Shapes of Whole Bones Flat Bones: • Thin in one dimension and larger in the other two. • Two sheets of cortical bone separated by trabecular bone • Broad surfaces for extensive muscles • Protection: skull
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The Skeleton Axial Skeleton (Green) Appendicular Skeleton (Pink)
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The Axial Skeleton Skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum Axial Skeleton (Green)
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Vertebral Column Neural arch Spinous process Transverse process Centrum (body)
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• Protects spinal cord • Aids locomotion • Resists compression • Attachment site for muscles Vertebral Column: Segmented, flexible rod Specializations: Fish Birds Mammals
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Fish Vertebral Column • Relatively uniform • Resists compression and prevents telescoping • Provides lateral flexibility for propulsion
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Regional specialization Dog, cat C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd 20 Horse C7 T18 L6 S7 Cd 15-21 Human C7 T12 L5 S5 Cd 4 Mammalian Vertebral Column
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Cervical Thoracic Atlas and axis permit head movement Even a giraffe has 7! Jumping animals like Kangaroo rats
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2011 for the course APC 100 taught by Professor Kelliewhited during the Spring '07 term at UC Davis.

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Musculoskeletal_Syst - Musculoskeletal System I II The Skeleton an overview Cartilage and Bone III Bone development and Joints IV Ligaments Tendons

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