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islam notes - o Putting pressure on Roman Empire o Built...

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Umma – Islamic community Caliphate – ‘system of governance’ Caliph – ‘civil social governor’; highest Imam o First 4: Bakr (632-34) Appointed in Medina Bridges gap from Muhammad to Caliphate Umar (634-44) Powerful military and political leader Set up the Islamic calendar o Begins with the Hijrah (622) ‘0’ Migration from Mecca to Medina Conquers Syria, Spain, North Africa, put pressure on Constantinople Conquers Jerusalem in 637 o Tolerance Killed by a slave Uthman (644-56) Voted in 2 main contributions: o Standardized Quran o Mu’awayia (governor of Syria) murdered Ali (656-61) Voted in Opposed by Mu’awayia Murdered
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Division o Tribal leaders leaving the Islamic community o In Mecca from Qurash tribe, supported Ali Umayyed Dynasty o Started with Mu’awayia (661-80)
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Unformatted text preview: o Putting pressure on Roman Empire o Built boats; dominated the Mediterranean o Built Dome of the Rock Famous Mosque o Mu’awayia’s son, Yazid comes to power Yazid is opposed by Ali’s 2 nd son, Husayn Husayn is killed, this event is known by many to begin the downfall of the Umayyed Dynasty Friday Highlights • Pre-Islamic Arabia o Tribal humanism o Polytheism • Life of Muhammad o Spiritual Revelations (2 catagories: Mecca & Medina) o Political • Mecca & Medina • Prophets o 5 major prophets • Quran • Orthodoxy vs. Orthopraxy • 5 Pillars of Islam • Context of God • First 4 Caliphs o Areas of division o Foundations of Sunni and Shia separation • The Umayyad Dynasty o Mu’awyia...
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