e94mtm - Engineering 45 The Structure and Properties of...

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Engineering 45 The Structure and Properties of Materials Midterm Examination October 26, 1994 Problem 1: (a) Give a brief, 1-2 sentence description of each of the four basic types of chemical bonding. (b) How might you increase the electrical conductivity of a covalently bonded material (e.g., Si) without changing its basic crystal structure? (c) How might you increase the electrical conductivity of an ionically bonded material (e.g., NaCl) without changing its basic crystal structure? Problem 2: The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system can only increase. The change in entropy in an infinitesimal change of state is dS = where T is the temperature, E is the internal energy, P is the pressure, V is the volume, µ k is the chemical potential of the k th component and N k is the mole number of the k th component. (a) Let two solids have fixed volumes and chemical contents, and let their temperatures be different. Show that if they interact only with one another energy (heat)
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e94mtm - Engineering 45 The Structure and Properties of...

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