Iss 310 Exam 1 notes - Iss 310 Exam 1 notes Lesson 1 Key...

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Iss 310 Exam 1 notes Lesson 1 Key terms - geography- Geography can be simply defined as the study of spatial relationships. This means that geographers study how characteristics of the physical environment (climates, plants, soils, etc.) and the social environment (culture, language, religion, etc.) vary over physical space (Earth). Then geographers try to explain the patterns of, and the interactions between, these characteristics. Geography is a social science. Geographers use spatial analysis to look for and determine patterns over physical space Two basic questions of geography: Where? Why There? - maps, cartography •a tool used to depict spatial information and analyze spatial relationships. Or, by definition, a map is a scaled graphic representation of the physical world, usually a two- dimensional graphic representation using lines and symbols to convey information or ideas about spatial relationships. Maps are the best way to display spatial information Cartography- study of many ways to display spatial analysis so it is easy to understand. Art and science of map making Map types: reference –Reference maps are general purpose maps that emphasize the location of both natural (e.g., landforms) and man-made features (e.g., cities) on the Earth's surface. Reference maps may be topographic (they show topography like a USGS topographic map) or atlas maps (like the one you drive with in your car or travel with). Important features of reference maps usually include: larger scale (shows a relavtively smaller area and greater detail), locational accuracy, physical features of the landscape, and varied amounts of point/line/areal data. Thematic maps are simply those that show themes. A thematic map may contain one or a limited number of themes (themes are non-tangible geographic data). Thematic maps show distributions and often quantities of non-tangible values, like social or economic data. Examples include population distributions, presidential-election results, HIV/AIDS incidences, etc. Map Generalization – simplification of elimination of detail on a map There are three types of cartographic generalization: - simplification (e.g., this occurs when detailed features are simplified, such as a very windy river is smoothed), - selection (e.g., this occurs when only predominant or the most important features are selected, such as only major highways instead of all transportation routes), and - classification (e.g., this occurs when features are grouped and represented based on commonalities, such as mapping all national parks in the same way and all state parks the same way). Map projection- placing things in the right spot not distorted from round globe to flat paper surface. Aim to make true four things : area , shape, distance, direction. Conformal projections-
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course ISS 310 online taught by Professor Arbogast during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Iss 310 Exam 1 notes - Iss 310 Exam 1 notes Lesson 1 Key...

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