ANT 154BN-07 Cognition

ANT 154BN-07 Cognition - ANT 154BN Lecture #7: Brains &...

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ANT 154BN Lecture #7: Brains & cognition 25 January 2011 1 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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1. Brains 2. Social and ecological intelligence 3. Tool use and intelligence 4. Tool diffusion and transmission Brains & cognition 2 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Brains & cognition >1. Brains 2. Social and ecological intelligence 3. Tool use and intelligence 4. Tool diffusion and transmission 3 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Measuring relative brain size Log (Brain Weight) Log (Body Weight) EQ = Encephalization Quotient = o b s e r v e d / e x p e c t e d b r a i n s i z e C O G 4 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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What are the social-cognitive consequences of variation in brain size? Rilling & Insel, 1999 5 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Reader & Laland 2002 Correlates of larger brains Social learning Behavioral innovation Tool-use ‘EBR’= (Neocortex + striatum) / (Brain stem) 6 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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The method of independent contrasts Values of Y d1 d2 d3 20 14 7 9 8 17 Y X d1 2 4 d2 6 10 d3 d2 d1 22 35 Values of X 30 24 20 40 15 10 Contrasts in Y Contrasts in X 0 0 7 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Iwaniuk et al 2001 JCP Larger-brained animals play more between orders (but not within primates or rodents) 15 mammalian orders Correlates of larger brains 8 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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9 x energy consumption of other body tissues, 16% of energy at rest Brains are metabolically costly 9 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Brains are metabolically costly Insler & van Schaik 2006 10 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Humans have large brains Allman et al. 1993 Body size Brain size Humans (all primates) 11 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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How did we afford large brains? By eating high quality foods 12 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Species with big guts have small brains The expensive tissue hypothesis Aiello & Wheeler 1995 Relative brain size Relative gut size primates 13 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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The expensive tissue hypothesis Human have larger brains and smaller guts than predicted based on body size. Aiello & Wheeler 1995 14 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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The expensive tissue hypothesis Aiello & Wheeler 1995 Higher quality diet Larger brain More energy available Smaller gut More energy available Reduced food bulk, energy rapidly absorbed requires less energy 15 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Brains & cognition 1. Brains >2. Social and ecological intelligence 3. Tool use and intelligence 4. Tool diffusion and transmission 16 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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Strier 2007 Types of intelligence Ecological intelligence Social intelligence Alliances Tactical deception/perspective-taking (TOM) Spatial memory Tool use 17 Tuesday, January 25, 2011
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The “Social Brain” hypothesis: are big-brained species socially adept?
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ANT 154BN-07 Cognition - ANT 154BN Lecture #7: Brains &...

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