Lecture 06 202 Spring 2011

Lecture 06 202 Spring 2011 - The Outer Solar System Outer...

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The Outer Solar System Outer Planets Overview Jupiter o Much farther from Sun than inner planets o Mostly H/He; no solid surface o 300 times more massive than Earth o Twice the mass of rest of Solar System o Many moons, rings Moons of Jupiter o Galilean Moons: Io (shown here): active volcanoes all over Europa: possible subsurface ocean Ganymede: largest moon in solar system Callisto: a large, cratered “ice ball” Saturn o Giant and gaseous like Jupiter o Spectacular rings Rings are NOT solid; they are made of countless small chunks of ice and rock, each orbiting like a tiny moon. o Many moons, including cloudy Titan Uranus o Smaller than Jupiter/Saturn; much larger than Earth o Made of H/He gas and hydrogen compounds (H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 )
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o Extreme axis tilt o Moons and rings Neptune o Similar to Uranus (except for axis tilt) o Many moons (including Triton) Comparative Planetology Composition o Jupiter and Saturn o Mostly H and He gas o Uranus and Neptune o Mostly hydrogen compounds: water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) o Some H, He, and rock o All four planets grew from planetesimals 10 times as massive as Earth o Jupiter and Saturn captured large amounts of H, He gas Interiors of Jovian Planets o No solid surface o Layers under high pressure and temperatures o Cores (~10 Earth masses) made of hydrogen compounds, metals, and rock o The layers are different for the different planets. o Models suggest cores of jovian planets have similar composition. o Lower pressures inside Uranus and Neptune mean no metallic hydrogen. Inside Jupiter
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o High pressures inside Jupiter cause phase of hydrogen to change with depth. o Hydrogen acts like a metal at great depths because its electrons move freely. o Core is thought to be made of rock, metals, and hydrogen compounds. o Core is about same size as Earth but 10 times as massive. Internal Heat o Jupiter radiates twice as much energy as it receives from the Sun. o Energy probably comes from slow contraction of interior (releasing potential energy). o Saturn also radiates twice as much energy as it receives from the Sun. o Neptune emits nearly twice as much energy as it receives. Atmosphere o All the jovian planets have strong winds and storms. o Hydrogen compounds in Jupiter form clouds. o Different cloud layers correspond to freezing points of different hydrogen compounds. o Other jovian planets have cloud layers similar to Jupiter’s. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2011 for the course ECOLOGY 110 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '11 term at N. Colorado.

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Lecture 06 202 Spring 2011 - The Outer Solar System Outer...

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