GSL_Glossary - Glossary abstinence. Refraining from sexual...

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Glossary 607 abstinence. Refraining from sexual activity, usually intercourse. (Chapter 15) accreditation. Certification process in which outside experts visit and evaluate a school or college to vouch for minimum quality standards. (Chapter 13) activist judge. A judge who is said to act as an independent policymaker by creatively interpreting constitutions and statutes. (Chapter 8) ad hoc federalism. The process of choosing a state- centered or nation-centered view of federalism on the basis of political or partisan convenience. (Chapter 2) affirmative action. Policies designed to help recruit and promote disadvantaged groups. (Chapter 9) Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The original federal assistance program for women and their children, started under Roosevelt’s New Deal. (Chapter 15) alternative dispute resolution. A way to end a dis- agreement by means other than litigation. It usually involves the appointment of a mediator to preside over a meeting between the parties. (Chapter 8) annexation. The legal incorporation of one jurisdic- tion or territory into another. (Chapter 11) appeal. A request to have a lower court’s decision in a case reviewed by a higher court. (Chapter 8) appointment powers. A governor’s ability to pick individuals to run state government, such as appoint- ing cabinet secretaries. (Chapter 7) apportionment. The allotting of districts according to population shifts. The number of congressional Glossary districts a state has may be reapportioned every ten years. (Chapter 6) appropriations bills. Laws passed by legislatures authorizing the transfer of money to the executive branch. (Chapter 3) assigned counsel. Private lawyers selected by the courts to handle particular cases and paid from public funds. (Chapter 8) at-large elections. Elections in which city or county voters vote for council or commission members. (Chapter 10) baby boomers. Generation of nearly eighty million individuals born after World War II, between 1946 and 1964. (Chapter 15) back to basics. A movement against modern educa- tion “fads” and a return to an emphasis on traditional core subjects such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. (Chapter 13) balanced budget. A budget in which current expendi- tures are equal to or less than income. (Chapter 12) ballot initiatives. Process through which voters direct- ly convey instructions to the legislature, approve a law, or amend the constitution. (Chapter 3) bench trials. Trials in which no jury is present and a judge decides the facts. (Chapter 8) bicameral legislatures. Legislatures that possess two chambers, typically a house of representatives, or assembly, and a senate. (Chapter 3) Bill of Rights. The first ten amendments to the Consti- tution. These amendments set limits on the power of Copyright (©) 2008 by CQ Press, a division of SAGE. CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc. No part of these pages may be quoted, reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2011 for the course PUBLIC ADM 204 taught by Professor Dr.m during the Spring '11 term at Kaplan University.

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GSL_Glossary - Glossary abstinence. Refraining from sexual...

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