460-5 - The Spine T he A nt er ior /Post er ior M ot ion...

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The Spine The Spine
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Anterior/Posterior Motion Anterior/Posterior Motion Segment Segment Anterior Segment Vertebral body Intervertebral disc Longitudinal lig’s Posterior Segment Vertebral arches Facet joints Transverse processes Spinous processes
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Vertebral Bodies Vertebral Bodies Designed to withstand compressive loads Progressively larger caudally (lumbar are thicker and wider than cervical)
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Ligaments Ligaments Primary ligaments Anterior longitudinal Posterior longitudinal Interspinous Ligamentum flavum
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Ligaments Ligaments
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Ligamentum Flavum Ligamentum Flavum High elastin content Allows it to stretch during flexion and “contract” in extension In the posterior segment it helps to add pre-tension to the disc and stabilize the spine
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Restraints to Movement Restraints to Movement Flexion Interspinous ligaments > capsular ligaments and ligamentum flavum Extension Anterior longitudinal ligament primarily stressed Lateral Flexion Transverse ligament > ligamentum flavum and capsular ligaments Rotation Greatest load on capsular ligaments
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Lumbar Spine Lumbar Spine
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Vertebral Facet Orientation Vertebral Facet Orientation Cervical Oblique (45 0 to transverse plane and parallel to frontal plane) Allows for all movements (flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation) Thoracic 60 0 to transverse plane and 20 0 to frontal plane Mostly lateral flexion and rotation with limited flexion/extension Lumbar Right angle to transverse plane (90 0 ) and 45 0 to frontal plane Maximal flexion/Extension and a lot of lateral flexion. Very minimal rotation
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Function of Facets Function of Facets Guide movement of the motion segment Assist in load-bearing Load sharing between facets and discs depends on segment and position Greatest load on facets (30% of total load) when in extension (hyperextension) Also increased load when fully flexed coupled with rotation
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Spinal Motion Spinal Motion (similar to Fryette’s Laws of Motion) (similar to Fryette’s Laws of Motion) Cervical Sidebending and rotation to same side Thoracic Sidebending and rotation to opposite side Lumbar Sidebending and rotation to opposite side except in extreme flexion
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Spine Movement Spine Movement Rotation Greatest in cervical and upper thoracic. Lumbar limited until L5-S1 Flexion Greatest in Cervical and Lumbar. Increases in Thoracic caudally In unloaded flexion and extension, the first 50- 60 0 of spine flexion occurs at the lumbar spine. Lateral Flexion Greatest in cervical and thoracic. Lumbar limited, expecially at L5-S1
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Spine Motion Spine Motion In full flexion of the spine, the erector spinae muscles relax– producing the “relaxation phenomenon”.
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course EXSC 460 taught by Professor Johnson,a during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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460-5 - The Spine T he A nt er ior /Post er ior M ot ion...

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