460 - PLANES OF THE BODY 1. Sagittal plane Divides body...

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PLANES OF THE BODY 1. Sagittal plane Divides body into right and left halves Forward and backward motions (flexion, extension) Rotary motion in sagittal plane occurs around a coronal axis 2. Frontal plane Divides body into front and back halves Side-to-side movements or lateral/medial movements (abduction, adduction, radial/ulnar deviation, lateral flexion) Rotary motion in frontal plane occurs around an anterior-posterior axis 3. Transverse (horizontal) plane Divide body into upper and lower halves Movements occur parallel to ground (rotary motions, horizontal abduction/adduction) Rotary motion occurs around a longitudinal or vertical axis MOVEMENT TERMINOLOGY Flexion — movement in the sagittal plane, from anatomical position Extension — movement in the sagittal plane, back to anatomical position Abduction — movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body or segment Adduction — movement in the frontal plane, toward the midline of the body or segment External rotation — movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns away from midline or reference point of the body Internal rotation — movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns toward the midline or reference point on the body Horizontal abduction — movement in the transverse plane, away from the midline of the body (used for hip and shoulder) Horizontal adduction — movement in the transverse plane, toward the midline of the body Lateral flexion — movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body (neck/trunk) Inversion — foot movement, reference segment moves toward midline Eversion — foot movement, reference segment moves away from midline Supination — foot movement (triplanar) combination of inversion, adduction and plantarflexion 1
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forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand up Pronation — foot movement (triplanar) combination of eversion, abduction and dorsiflexion forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand down Plantarflexion — foot movement towards the plantar surface Dorsiflexion — foot movement towards the dorsal surface Protraction — movement of a segment anteriorly Retraction — movement of a segment posteriorly JOINTS A. Traditional method of joint classification divides joints into two broad categories of: Synarthroses (nonsynovial joints) a. Fibrous joints — 3 different types 1. Suture — ex. Coronal suture of skull: the serrated edges of the parietal and frontal bones of the skull are connected by a thin fibrous membrane. As we age the bones grow together to form a synostosis where little or no movement is possible. 2. Syndesmosis — a type of fibrous joint in which two bones are joined directly by a ligament, cord or aponeurotic membrane. (i.e. The shaft of the tibia is directly joined to the shaft of the fibula by a membrane. Only a slight amount of movement is available - - - which accompanies the knee and ankle joints). 3.
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course EXSC 460 taught by Professor Johnson,a during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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460 - PLANES OF THE BODY 1. Sagittal plane Divides body...

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