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smith-42 - All grains have the same three parts (anatomy of...

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All grains have the same three parts (anatomy of a kernel transparency) Bran : It has several outer layers. Also, high in cellulose (fiber) and B vitamins. Endosperm : Starch, protein, and limited B vitamins. Usually used in milling most flours. Germ or embryo : fat, thiamin. Often removed to make flour because fat causes rancidity. Whole grain products have all three parts of the grain. Source of nutrients and fiber, but spoil sooner because of fat in the germ. Enriched products are made of endosperm with nutrients (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate and iron) added back that were lost in processing. Granular starch is insoluble in cold water. It needs heat to dissolve. Dry heat causes starch to become slightly soluble and to lose some of its thickening power. Dry heat also causes color and flavor changes. (It causes the dark crust on baked goods, and some ready to eat cereals. This chemical change is called dextrinization. Mixing starch granules with water and heating them makes them soluble. They absorb water and swell, and the starch mixture thickens. This process is called gelatinization . During cooling, bonds form, and the spaces in the gel network trap water. If you cut the gel or if it sits too long, water may leak out. This is called syneresis . (lemon pie filling). Temperature = Warm heat makes starch swell evenly. Hot heat causes uneven swelling and lumping. Starch in the center of the lumps does not swell, but stays small and dry. Time = After a starch mixture reaches its maximum gelatinization, cook it a few minutes longer to thoroughly cook the starch. Agitation = The amount of agitation a starch mixture gets affects its texture. If you stir it too hard or too long, you may break the starch molecules and have a thinner product. (A recipe usually tells which mixing method to use.) (Stop for Video) Carbohydrates = Number one source or energy! B Vitamins = Healthy nervous system. Incomplete Proteins = Eat a variety to supply the complete proteins the body needs.
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Cereal = Cereal grains contain large amounts of starch. Therefore, the principles used in cooking starch apply to cereals. Microwaving cereals, rice, and pasta is not much faster than cooking it conventionally, but it is less likely to stick and burn. You may serve pasta immediately, but let rice and cereal stand before serving. Pasta = Cook in 2 quarts of water for each 8 ounces of pasta so it can move freely. Adding oil or butter will keep the starchy stands from sticking together, but also keeps sauce from sticking to the pasta. Salt is optional. Add the pasta gradually so the water doesn’t stop boiling.
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course SFL 110 taught by Professor Annhardman during the Spring '10 term at BYU.

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smith-42 - All grains have the same three parts (anatomy of...

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