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BATTERS, DOUGHS, LEAVENING AGENTS: ADDITIONAL LECTURE MATERIALS Every time you cook you are entering the world of kitchen chemistry. Each ingredient has a special function in a recipe. They work together to create chemical reactions that become finished food products. Today we are going to review the ingredients that are used in baked goods. In lab this week, you will see how the ingredients work. Muffin method Demonstration: (Do now so muffins are baked by the end of lab.) The muffin method is the correct way to mix muffins, pancakes, popovers and nut breads. 1. Combine dry ingredients and sift into a mixing bowl. 2. Combine liquid ingredients – eggs, milk and melted shortening. 3. Pour the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients. 4. Mix only enough to dampen the flour, but not to make a smooth batter. 5. Lift batter carefully into baking pans to avoid extra mixing. Leavening agents : Grow them as you discuss them. Demonstration: Put 1/2 C. water in each of 4 bottles. Add 1 tsp. baking soda, 1 tsp. baking powder, 1 tsp. yeast, and 1 tsp. yeast + 1 tsp. sugar in the containers. Put a balloon on top of each container, dump in leavening agents, and let them “rise” as you discuss ingredients. Compare the size of the balloons, and discuss results at the end of lecture. 1. Baking Soda & water = nothing (no acid), 2. Baking Powder & water = (double action) some first reaction, but no heat for second reaction. 3. Yeast and water – no heat, no food, no reaction. 4. Yeast and Sugar = two of three requirements for growth. ( if water is warm it should grow nicely.) 5. Baking soda & Vinegar is dramatic. ( Leave it for last?) Function: Leavening agents produce gas which help to make batters and dough rise so they are light and porous. The kind and amount depends on the recipe. Forms: Yeast is a small plant that, like other fungi, requires heat, moisture and sugar or starch to grow. Yeast plants change sugars into carbon dioxide by the process of fermentation. In cooking we use Baker’s Yeast. Baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid such as buttermilk, vinegar or lemon juice. Baking soda is very concentrated, and does not leaven as well as baking powder. Too much baking soda ruins the taste of food, leaves brown spots on the surface, and destroys the thiamine in bread products. The leavening process is activated by combining baking soda with liquid. Baking powder
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course SFL 110 taught by Professor Annhardman during the Spring '10 term at BYU.

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