BATTERS, DOUGHS, LEAVENING AGENTS:
ADDITIONAL LECTURE MATERIALS
Every time you cook you are entering the world of kitchen chemistry.
has a special function in a recipe.
They work together to create chemical reactions that
become finished food products. Today we are going to review the ingredients that are
used in baked goods.
In lab this week, you will see how the ingredients work.
Muffin method Demonstration:
(Do now so muffins are baked by the end of lab.)
The muffin method is the correct way to mix muffins, pancakes, popovers and nut
Combine dry ingredients and sift into a mixing bowl.
Combine liquid ingredients – eggs, milk and melted shortening.
Pour the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients.
Mix only enough to dampen the flour, but not to make a smooth batter.
Lift batter carefully into baking pans to avoid extra mixing.
Grow them as you discuss them.
Put 1/2 C. water in each of 4 bottles.
Add 1 tsp. baking soda, 1 tsp. baking powder, 1
tsp. yeast, and 1 tsp. yeast + 1 tsp. sugar in the containers.
Put a balloon on top of
each container, dump in leavening agents, and let them “rise” as you discuss
Compare the size of the balloons, and
discuss results at the end of
1. Baking Soda & water =
nothing (no acid), 2. Baking Powder & water =
(double action) some first reaction, but no heat for second reaction.
3. Yeast and water
– no heat, no food, no reaction.
4. Yeast and Sugar = two of three requirements for
( if water is warm it should grow nicely.)
5. Baking soda & Vinegar is dramatic.
( Leave it for last?)
Leavening agents produce gas which help to make batters and dough rise so they are
light and porous.
The kind and amount depends on the recipe.
is a small plant that, like other fungi, requires heat, moisture and sugar or starch
Yeast plants change sugars into carbon dioxide by the process of
In cooking we use Baker’s Yeast.
produces carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid such as
buttermilk, vinegar or lemon juice.
Baking soda is very concentrated, and does not
leaven as well as baking powder.
Too much baking soda ruins the taste of food, leaves
brown spots on the surface, and destroys the thiamine in bread products.
leavening process is activated by combining baking soda with liquid.