320 BasicsPages

320 BasicsPages - 151 Appendix : Business writing basics C...

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Unformatted text preview: 151 Appendix : Business writing basics C ONTENTS Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Sentence Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Agreement and Reference . . . . . 170 Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Answers to Quiz Questions . . . . 180 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 W ORDS Imagine a culture with no word or sentence rules, a cul- ture in which people could just make up their own rules. Such a culture would be headed for ruin. We must adhere to certain basic rules if we hope to communicate effectively. The following text discusses (a) word classifications and (b) word guidelines. Word Classifications Words are the basic building blocks of language. They are classified into one of eight categories, called parts of speech. The classification depends on how the word is used in a sentence. Thus, a word may be classified differently, depending on how it is used. Example: Mary was running along the path by the river. [Running is a verb. ] Example: Running is my least favorite activity. [Running is a noun. ] Example: The running water is interrupting my concentration. [Running is an adjective. ] The eight parts of speech are described as follows. Noun: A word that names a person, place, or thing. Examples: John, dog, Salt Lake City, vaccination Example: John took his dog to Salt Lake City for a vaccination. [These nouns are persons, places, or things.] Example: Patience is a virtue. [These two nouns describe human attributes.] Pronoun: A word used in place of a noun. Examples: I, you, she, it, they, who, him Example: She gave the report to him. [ She and him are pronouns that replace nouns, such as Tiffany and Andrew. ] Verb: A word or word group that describes the action or state of being of the sentence subject. Examples: Ran, tried, thought, felt, was, is, are Example: John saved the file on his hard disk [ action verb]. Example: Sharon is the new manager [ being verb]. Adjective: A word that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Examples: Red, new, poor, warm, tall Example: Rick fixed the leaky pipe. [ Leaky modi- fies, or describes, the noun pipe. ] Example: She is qualified for the job. [ Qualified modifies or describes the pronoun she. ] Adverb: A word that modifies or describes a verb, adjec- tive, or other adverb. Examples: Really, very, extremely Example: Georgia walked slowly back to the car. [ Slowly modifies the verb walked. ] Example: Jeannie is a very beautiful woman. [ Very modifies the adjective beautiful. ] Example: Lon sang exceptionally well today....
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320 BasicsPages - 151 Appendix : Business writing basics C...

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