320 Proper_PointsLatest

320 Proper_PointsLatest - of Punctuation ood Guidelines to...

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s of Punctuation & Good Guidelines to Grammar Sister Gayle Rockwood M COM 320 You will be expected to know each of the rules outlined below. This list does not contain a complete explanation nor an example of each rule; you will be expected to find explanations and examples from the reading required. Revised: 07:31:00 Punctuation— Commas: (1) Divide independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, yet). 1,2,3 May omit if first clause is five or fewer words; the comma is optional (per Baker). May omit if both are short & closely related (per Ober). (2) Place after many introductory elements: dependent clauses, introductory phrases, prepositional phrases, and transitional words. (E.g., nevertheless.) 2 a. Dependent clauses: i. When you have finished, please return the style manual . ii. If you need help, please call me in the afternoon . iii. Since we need more clerks, we will begin advertising . b. Introductory phrases: i. To qualify for the position, you must have two years’ experience . ii. Climbing quickly, the hikers reached the summit by noon . c. Prepositional phrases totaling five or more words 2 unless essential and don’t interrupt flow: i. In the spring of the year , our thoughts may be diverted from academics. ii. In some instances a single parent must work alternate hours. (3) Use a comma before a dependent clause at the end of a sentence only if the dependent clause is an afterthought. 2,3 i. Please return the style manual when you have finished. ii. I plan to leave at 3:30, if that meets with your approval. (4) Divide all items in a series of three or more. 2 Note: Some sources say the last comma before the conjunction is optional. Note: Be sure to distinguish between single-word items and double-word items. i. We were served salads, macaroni and cheese, and crackers. ( Macaroni and cheese is a single item.) (5) Divide adjacent adjectives that modify the same noun (independent adjectives). 1,2,3,4 1
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Sister Gayle Rockwood M COM 320 (6) Divide nonessential or interrupting sentence elements (also known as nonrestrictive expressions) from essential elements (also known as restrictive expressions). 1,2,3,4 a. Parenthetical phrases: cannot answer when? Where? Why? How? 2,4 i. In the summer the size of our staff declines. (Answers when.) ii. At our Madison branch we will hire additional personnel. (Answers where.) iii. For this reason we will be lowering our prices. (Answers why.) iv. With your help our production team can meet its goal. (Answers how.) b. Nonessential appositives (a phrase that renames or explains a preceding noun or pronoun and provides information that is not essential to the identification of its antecedent) unless there is only one word. 2,3 i. My cat Sally likes to scratch me. (One word.) ii. The sales representative Sally Roberts is here to see you. (Name is essential information.) iii. Sally Roberts, the sales representative from DataMax, is here to see you. (Appositive the sales representative from DataMax adds nonessential information.) c. Interrupting expressions (e.g., of course , for example ) if they interrupt the flow of the sentence.
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