10_Nervous Tissue

10_Nervous Tissue - NERVOUS TISSUE Chapter 14 The Nervous...

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NERVOUS TISSUE Chapter 14
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The Nervous System Body’s primary communication and control system Can be divided according to structural and functional categories
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Structural Organization Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Ganglia
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Functional Organization Sensory (Afferent) division Transmit information FROM RECEPTORS TO CNS Divided into somatic and visceral sensory Motor (Efferent) division Transmit information FROM CNS TO MUSCLE OR GLAND Divided into somatic and autonomic motor
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Cytology of Nervous Tissue Neurons Excitable cells that transmit nerve impulses Glial Cells Non-excitable cells that support and protect the neurons
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Neuron Characteristics High Metabolic Rate – need constant glucose and oxygen Longevity – live and function for over 100 years Nonmitotic – during fetal development lose ability to divide
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Tumors of the CNS Primary tumor Tumors may form in the meninges (meningiomas) or glial cells (gliomas) Neurons are incapable of becoming tumors because they cannot divide Secondary tumor Tumor forms in another site but spreads to the brain (lung, skin or breast cancers)
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Neuron Anatomy Dendrites Cell body Nucleus Axon hillock Axon Neurofibril node (Node of Ranvier) Myelin sheath Synaptic knobs
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Dendrites Carry impulses towards the cell body Soma can have only one or many dendrites Receive input and transfer to cell body for processing
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