14_Endocrine

14_Endocrine - THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter 20 Pituitary...

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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter 20 Pituitary Gland
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Endocrine Glands Develop from all 3 embryonic germ layers Ductless glands Secrete hormones directly into the blood stream that bind to receptors on cells Help maintain homeostasis Endocrinology is the study of endocrine glands and hormones
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Endocrine vs. Nervous System The endocrine system has a slower response but lasts longer than the nervous system It has widespread general effects It can affect any cell in the body It acts using hormones
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Hormones Messenger molecules released into the blood by endocrine glands that regulate specific body functions Tropic hormones : Hormones that affect the release of other hormones Ex. Gonadotropins (LH and FSH) are hormones that affect the release of sex hormones from the gonads
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Types of Hormones Three structural types: Peptides Chains of amino acids, most common hormone type Ex. Growth hormone (GH) Steroids Lipid derived from cholesterol Ex. Testosterone Biogenic Amines Produced by altering a specific amino acid Ex. Thyroid hormone (TH)
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Hypothalamus : 3 Endocrine Functions
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Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) “master gland” Composed of: Anterior Pituitary ( tissue hormones from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary before blood returns to the heart Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) Part of the brain
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Posterior Pituitary Hormones Hormones are made in the hypothalamus Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) functions to store and secrete hormones Antidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin) Initiates water reabsorption during dehydration (fasting) Increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction Hypersecretion causes edema Hyposecretion causes Diabetes Insipidus Oxytocin Induces smooth muscle contraction in reproductive organs Uterine contractions and milk ejection
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14_Endocrine - THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter 20 Pituitary...

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