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23_Female Reproduction

23_Female Reproduction - FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Chapter...

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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Chapter 28
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Overview Gonads (primary sex organs): Female: ovaries Male: testes Functions: Produce sex cells (gametes) Oocyte (female) and sperm (male) Produce sex hormones Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone Hormones affect maturation, development, and activity of reproductive system
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Puberty Initiated when hypothalamus begins secreting GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) GnRH stimulates release of gonadotropins ( FSH and LH) from anterior pituitary FSH and LH stimulate the gonads to produce sex hormones Increased sex hormones start the process of gamete maturation and sexual maturation Women release 1 egg each month Men create 100-200 million sperm each day
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Perineum Diamond-shaped area Bordered by pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosities and coccyx Urogenital triangle and anal triangle
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Gross Anatomy of the Female 1. Ovaries 1. Fimbriae 1. Uterine tubes (oviduct) 2. Uterus 3. Vagina 4. Vulva
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Ovaries Primary sex organs Smooth in young girls Scarred and pitted after puberty Tunica albuginea Ovarian cortex Follicles (oocytes surrounded by follicle cells) Ovarian medulla Loose connective tissue Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
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Oogenesis Meiotic maturation of primary occyte to secondary oocyte Begins in female fetus Girls born with 1.5 million follicles Ovary and oocyte remain inactive until puberty By puberty about 400,000 follicles remain
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28 Day Ovarian Cycle 3 Phases: Follicular phase (days 1-13) FSH and LH stimulate maturation of follicle
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