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25_Pregnancy - PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH Chapter 3...

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PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH Chapter 3
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Capacitation : Period of sperm conditioning in female reproductive tract Prepares the acrosome for fertilization Fertilization Combines the genetic material from the sperm and oocyte Occurs in the uterine tube Capacitation and Fertilization
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Three Phases of Fertilization 1. Corona Radiata Penetration Acrosome Reaction: acrosome releases enzymes to enable sperm to penetrate the corona radiata 1. Zona Pellucida Penetration Acrosome continues to release enzymes to penetrate the zona pellucida Zona pellucida hardens after one sperm penetrates, preventing polyspermy 1. Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte Plasma Membranes Once the nucleus of the sperm enters the secondary oocyte, the oocyte completes second meiotic division Sperm and ovum fuse, forming a single nucleus 1 2 3
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Implantation Usually begins seven days after fertilization Zona pellucida begins to break down Trophoblast subdivides Cytotrophoblast (inner layer) Syncytiotrophoblast (outer layer) Burrows into the stratum functionalis of the endometrium
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Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Syncytiotrophoblast produces hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Signals the woman’s body to continue uterine growth instead of menstruation
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