Key Supreme Court Cases

Key Supreme Court Cases - Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1...

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Marbury v. Madison , 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803) is a landmark case in United States law and the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States, under Article Three of the United States Constitution. This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams' Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Being unable to assume the appointed offices without the commission documents, Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional. Shaw v. Reno , 509 U.S. 630 (1993), was a United States Supreme Court case argued on April 20, 1993. The ruling was significant in the area of redistricting and racial gerrymandering. The court ruled in a 5-4 decision that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the equal protection clause. On the other hand, bodies doing redistricting must be conscious of race to the extent that they must ensure compliance with the Voting Rights Act. The redistricting that occurred after the
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Key Supreme Court Cases - Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1...

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