p11_lec02

p11_lec02 - "Procedural" Democracies, 2008...

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“Procedural” Democracies, 2008 Source: Freedom House 2008 2
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Degrees of Democracy Source: Economist Intelligence Unit 3
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The Third Wave of Democratization Huntington says overthrow of Marcelo Caetano in Portuguese “Carnation Revolution” starts the Third Wave Since then: > 40 transitions to democracy Wave = # of transitions in one direction (eg, to D) greatly out- number those in other direction (eg, to A) during a time period 4
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Waves From Doorenspleet, 2000 5
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Waves Source Doorenspleet, 2000 Number of transitions to democracy by year (1893-1993) 6
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7 S.P. Huntington
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Source Doorenspleet, 2000 Different categorization, same basic story 8
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The Third Wave: Why? 1. Catholic Church changes tune towards authoritarianism 2. US starts pushing human rights 3. European Union encourages membership 4. Collapse of Soviet Union into many countries 5. Snowballing: Portugal started it all 6. Legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes. Rest on not just coercion… poor performance (bad economy, bad war) decreases public support for regime 7. Economic growth in 60's and 70’s… Economic development is often noted to strengthen democracy & increase likelihood of democratization 9
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Wealth & democracy are strongly related Wealth (GDP per capita in 1985 purchasing power US dollars) Proportion democratic Proportion of Countries that are Democratic, 1950-1990 10
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Modernization Theory Shift from Peasant-Based Agriculture to Capitalism (Industrialization) Series of Changes in Society Democratization Correlates of Industrialization Urbanization : peasants workers Education : citizenship skills Expansion of Communication Networks : Information and tools to oppose bad governments Rising Wealth Levels : Moderates conflict Strengthened Civil Society : Creates organizational muscle to oppose authoritarianism
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p11_lec02 - "Procedural" Democracies, 2008...

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