p11_lec04

p11_lec04 - Federalism Federalism = sub-national, regional...

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Federalism Federalism = sub-national, regional governments exist and have some political independence from national/central government Variation in degrees of federalism: Very important : US, Switzerland, Brazil Less important : South Africa No federalism = unitary state: El Salvador Federalism decentralized administration (e.g., China ) 1
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Federalism Pros : “States’ rights” Government “closer” to the people Experimentation states can learn from each other which policies work better than others Cons : Duplication of policymaking effort Moral hazard ” = someone insulated from risk may behave differently from the way they would behave if it were fully exposed to the risk If states think they will be bailed out by central governments for bad finances, then they may be deliberately irresponsible
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Federalism Where does it come from? Coming together : states create a national government, but maintain some regional power Examples: Switzerland, US Holding together : national government cedes power to regional governments to satisfy citizen demands Examples: South Africa, India Federalism more likely in large territories ( India, Canada, Brazil ) and ethnically-diverse societies ( Switzerland, Belgium, Spain ) 3
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Federalism tends to coexist with: Judicial review by supreme or constitutional court. Resolves jurisdiction Bicameralism : 2 nd (“upper”) chambers in congress (e.g., Senate) If a unitary system has a 2 nd chamber, it is usually weak, without Veto Power the power to reject proposed policy changes 2 nd chambers often give regions equal representation in federal congress Where regions not equally populated malapportionment Some regions are underrepresented in terms of population while others are overrepresented , with disproportional influence on policymaking 4
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Brazil Sub-national governments (26 + Brasilia) with wide-ranging powers Strong Senate in bicameral congress. Has veto over legislation & sole authority for: Setting debt levels for all levels of government, approving international financing, impeaching officials, etc. Each state has three Senators, despite large population differences Judicial review by Supreme Federal Court 5
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Virtually all power in lower chamber, the House of Commons House of Lords can only delay legislation, and only non-budgetary legislation… no veto power Formerly unitary and without judicial review…. 6
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course POLI 11 taught by Professor Strom during the Winter '11 term at UCSD.

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p11_lec04 - Federalism Federalism = sub-national, regional...

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