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Lecture 19 - Chemical bond

Lecture 19 - Chemical bond - Hybrid Atomic Orbitals sp3 sp2...

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sp 3 sp 2 sp Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
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Covalent Bond Geometry Why is water bent and CO 2 linear? C O O O H H Water : Oxygen has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 (6 valence e-) Oxygen is sp 3 hybridized (109° bond angles). Two sp3 orbitals form single bonds with hydrogen Other two are filled with lone electron pairs Carbon dioxide : Carbon has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Carbon is sp hybridized (180° bond angles). Two sp orbitals form σ bonds with oxygen. Unhybridized p orbitals form π bonds with each oxygen. NH 3 : Nitrogen has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Nitrogen is sp 3 hybridized (109°). 3 sp 3 orbitals form σ bonds with hydrogen. One sp 3 orbital filled with lone pair.
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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Ligands and lone pair repel each other. Adopt a shape that maximizes angle separation. Lone pair occupies more space than ligand. Space by ligand increases with electroneg (X). Multiple bond occupies more space than single. 104º 107º 109º 120° 117° SO 2 SO 3
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