Lecture 1 MCB121

Lecture 1 MCB121 - DNA and Genomes Goals 1 You will...

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DNA and Genomes Goals: 1. You will understand the organization and content of the human genome and its relation to other genomes 2. You will understand the molecular properties of DNA (covalent and noncovalent) and how they relate to synthesis-based sequencing methodology including hybridization and synthesis of new DNA. 3. You will be able to describe chain termination sequencing and pyrosequencing methods. 4. You will be able to interpret data output from these methods 5. you will be able to apply these data to understanding the DNA sequence variation between and among species. Vocabulary Ribose, 2'-deoxyribose, dideoxyribose, nucleoside, nucleotide, phosphodiester linkage, purine pyrimidine, nucleophillic attack (sn2 reaction), pyrophosphate, primer, polymerase, chain-terminating nucleotide, pyrosequencing, genome complement, contig, scaffold, BAC, shot-gun sequencing, LINE, SINE, retrovirus, transposon, pseudogene, alphasatellite repeat, centromere, telomore, origin of replication, genome, introns. References MBOG chapter 6: 101-107, 113-117; Chapter 7: 141-144; Chapter 21:762b-764t; http:// genome.gov/; Sequencing Technologies.pdf MBOC problems: 2.43, 4.1-4.5, 4.12, 4.32, 4.35, 4.38, 4.45, 4.95, 4.96, 8.77 L1 Practice problems.pdf About the Wiki I intend to use the Wiki to outline the material presented in lecture and to direct you to the relevant sections of the MBOG book. It is not intended as a substitute for the lecture or reading the assigned book chapters. I will make the relevant page available for print before class, but keep in mind that I may update some of the material as the course goes on in response to student comments, questions, misconceptions etc. My hope is that the pages will enrich the course for you in some way. -SB Lecture outline I. Organization and content of human genome A. Genome size does not reflect gene number
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The human genome contains 3200 Mb of DNA and from 20,000-25,000 genes. While there are 3.2 billion basepairs in the haploid genome, a diploid nucleus has twice that and after DNA replication has 4 times this amount. The size of the human genome is not remarkable when compared to other creatures. There are plant and animal species whose genomes are >40 times as large. A gene is the basic unit of heredity and comprises information for making 1 RNA product. The coding region codes for protein. The noncoding sequences of a gene include regulatory sequences and introns. Less than 2% of the human genome encodes unique protein sequences. Almost all metazoans have a comparable number of genes (~15-30 x 10 3 ), this is just a few fold more than some single-cell creatures. Budding yeast has (5800). Plants generally have more genes than animals. The maize genome sequence was released last month and found to have ~32,000 genes. MBOG Figure 7-2 Comparison of chromosomal gene density for different
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Lecture 1 MCB121 - DNA and Genomes Goals 1 You will...

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