BioStudyGuide1 - Lecture 1 Element basic substance that...

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Lecture 1. Element: basic substance that can’t be simplified by natural means (Major elements: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen ) Compound: molecule (2 or more atoms) that contains more than one type of element (ex. H 2 0) Atom: smallest subdivision of an element that retains properties. (exception: conductivity of a metal. One atom alone cannot conduct electricity). Nucleus: atoms central core, contains protons and neutrons. Electron: negatively charged particle. Proton: positively charged particle Orbital: space that electrons are found valence shell and electrons: outermost energy shell of an atom, contains valence electrons involved in chemical reactions. covalent bond: sharing pair of valence electrons by two atoms. Single - , double = polar covalent bond: covalent bond between atoms with different electronegativity. Shared electrons are pulled closer to more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and other slightly positive. weak non-covalent chemical bonds: -Hydrogen: bond formed when hydrogen atom covalently bonded with one electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom -ionic: covalent bond between oppositely charged particles Hydrophilic: affinity for water Hydrophobic: aversion to water pH: hydrogen ion concentration equal to –log [H + ], range= (acid) 0-14 (base) ionization of a carboxylic group: protonation of an amino group:
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Molecular formula of oxygen, hydrogen, water, ammonia: O 2 , H 2 , H 2 O, NH 3 4 properties of water supporting life: CohesiveAbility to moderate tempVersatility as solventExpansion upson freezing 1. Cohesion & high surface tension: - When evaporating out of a tree (transpiration), the hydrogen bonds continue to pull up more water. -High surface tension can allow things to float atop the surface (because of hydrogen bonds). Surface tension allows bubbles to form because without it, the gas would just diffuse into the water 2. High specific heat -Amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C -Keeps costal areas temperate, large bodies of water have stable temperatures, cells are mostly water (high specific heat helps organism resist change in temperature) 3. High heat of vaporization
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