During this lab assignment, you will analyze the nonmainstream dialect use of one child, Tiger1
Tiger1 is a white child and Tiger2 is an African American child.
As you will see
when you open your samples, we have already coded the samples to mark the utterances with
nonmainstream dialectal patterns. Your job is to use SALT (explore utterances) to list the
utterances with [D].
Then you need to fill out the table to get a frequency count of the types and
tokens of each nonmainstream pattern.
On the following pages, you will find descriptions of
each dialect and a table for completing the analyses.
Instructions for coding dialectal features:
Pick one of the samples (Tiger1 or Tiger2) to analyze.
Using the ANALYZE menu,
select the UTTERANCE CODE TABLES option and click on TABLE EXPANDED BY
If you ask the computer to also list the line (transcript entry) that comes
before and after each of these utterances, you will have the dialect gloss.
The glosses you
should help you fill out the table.
Remember to click on INLCUDE ENTRY NUMBER,
so you can complete the chart with the line numbers for the [D] utterances.
If you were
to do this analysis for your final project, you would need to generate the output yourself
even though the transcript already has [D] codes in it. To generate the output, select
ANALYZE, search and list all of the utterances that contain [D].
Using the Table from the next few pages, write down the line number of each utterance
that corresponds to the appropriate dialectal structure.
Be careful as sometimes one
utterance can contain more than one dialectal structure (e.g., “she don’t want none”
contains agreement with don’t and a double negative).
Use the numbers on your Table to
describe the types of dialectal forms your child produced.
Include in your description,
the number of nonstandard dialect types, nonstandard dialect tokens, and the most
Dialect types refer to the number of different types of dialectal
Tokens refer to the total number of instances a nonstandard form
For example, if a child produced 4 double negatives and 2 pronoun
substitutions, one would state that the child used 2 dialectal types and 6 dialect tokens.
An index of dialect density is determined by dividing the number of dialectal utterances
by the total number of complete and intelligible utterances.
Following work by
Washington and Craig (1992), high dialect users produce nonstandard forms in 24 to 39%
of their utterances, moderate dialect users produce nonstandard structures in 12 to 23% of
their utterances. Low dialect users produce nonstandard forms in less than 11% of their
utterances. Typically, if less than 10% of a child’s utterances contain dialect, you can use
standard language sample analyses without modifications.
Research has not been
completed on the appropriateness of standard language analyses with speakers whose
density of nonstandard dialect use is greater than 20%.
Many argue, however, that