ch_9_stp

ch_9_stp - NEUROLOGICALLY BASED COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS...

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NEUROLOGICALLY BASED COMMUNICATIVE COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS CHAPTER 9
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Definitions Aphasia – a language disorder due to brain damage or disease Apraxia – a disorder of sequenced motor movements in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis Dysarthria – a group of speech disorders due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles caused by damage to the central or peripheral nervous system
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SORTING ‘EM OUT Cerebral Palsy
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Dysarthria
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http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html
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http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivi (human brain fly-through)
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Brodmann Areas a region of the cortex defined based on its cytoarchitecture, or organization of cells originally defined and numbered by Korbinian Brodmann based on the organization of neurons he observed in the cortex Broca’s area = 44 and 45 Wernicke’s area = 22 123xxoo.123bbx.com/read-htm-tid-4281.html
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Lobes of the Cortex The cerebrum: -covered by membranes call meninges - Cushioned by surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (stuff the brain floats in) http://www.sharpbrains.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/sfo-brain-labeled-to-match-computer-guy- v2.JPG
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Frontal Lobes - Location of the Primary Motor Cortex -Involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. - extremely vulnerable - Broca's Aphasia, or difficulty in speaking, has been associated with frontal damage One of the most common characteristics of frontal lobe damage is difficulty in interpreting feedback from the environment (perseverating on a response , risk taking, and non-compliance with rules) www.neuroskills.com/tbi/bfrontal.shtml
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Parietal Lobe -Location of the Primary Sensory Cortex -integrates sensory information to form a single perception (cognition). -constructs a spatial coordinate system to represent the world around us -damage often results in abnormalities in body image and spatial relations -left damage difficulty with writing (agraphia), mathematics (acalculia), disorders of language (aphasia), inability to perceive objects normally (agnosia) - - right damage → left neglect, difficulty drawing or making things (constructional apraxia), denial of deficits (anosagnosia) www.neuroskills.com
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Occiptial Lobe - a.k.a. the visual cortex -contains the primary visual area -damage can result in inability to recognize printed words (alexia) -not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brain -although any significant brain trauma could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects
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Temporal Lobes -most important for speech and language, highly associated with memory & organization of sensory input -Wernicke’s aphasia – fluent speech, poor comprehension -Individuals with temporal lobes lesions have difficulty placing words or pictures into categories. -Left temporal lesions disturb
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course COMD 2081 taught by Professor Domma during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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ch_9_stp - NEUROLOGICALLY BASED COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS...

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