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Chapter_3_part_2student - Anatomy Physiology Part II The...

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Anatomy &  Anatomy &  Physiology Part II Physiology Part II
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The Outer Ear Pinna (Auricle) Ear canal (External Auditory Meatus)
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The Middle Ear Middle ear  (mechanical energy) Air filled cavity Outer and middle ears are separated by the eardrum or  tympanic membrane Tympanic membrane (eardrum):  Thin, tough, elastic,  cone shaped membrane
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Middle Ear Ossicular chain:  Three small bones Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrup)
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Middle Ear Eustachian tube (auditory tube):   Connects middle ear to the nasopharynx Equalizes pressure and aerates middle ear The tube can be opened by yawning and swallowing (this  lets fresh air into the middle ear)
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Middle Ear Mechanics Muscles:  The acoustic reflex Tensor tympani:  Tenses the eardrum to reduce its  vibrations Stapedius:  Stiffens the ossicular chain to reduce its  vibrations
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Inner Ear Begins with Oval Window Two primary structures: Three semicircular canals: Help maintain balance Cochlea: primary inner ear structure of hearing
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Vestibular System Vestibular system:  The three semicircular canals that help control balance, posture,  and movement
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Inner Ear Fluids Cochlea:  Snail shaped; coiled tunnel that is filled with a  fluid called endolymph Endolymph:  Fluid in the cochlea The inner ear is a system of interconnecting tunnels  called labyrinths - the tunnels are filled with a fluid  called perilymph Perilymph:  Fluid that fills the inner ear
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Cochlea Basilar membrane:  Floor of the cochlea;  when the stapes pushes into the inner ear,  what gets really pushed around is the  endolymph
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Cochlea cont. Organ of Corti  (bathes in the endolymph):   Contained in the basilar membrane.   The inner ear's most important structure of hearing Contains thousands of hair cells or cilia that respond  to sound
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Cochlea Cont.
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