Chapter_4

Chapter_4 - ARTICULATI ON AND PHONOLOGI CAL DISORDERS...

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ON AND PHONOLOGI CAL DISORDERS CHAPTER FOUR
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EXPERIMENTS IN INFANT SPEECH PERCEPTION The Language of Research Stimulus – something that evokes a reaction Visual, auditory, economic Control trial – same old, same old Change trial – Whoa! What’s that? Reliability - the extent to which any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials. Without reliability, the results can’t be generalized to non-participants.
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INFANT SPEECH PERCEPTION Babies can be taught to discriminate between speech stimuli, even those not in their language. This teachability declines around age one. Some discriminations are harder to teach [sa]  [za] [fi]   [ti]
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THE INADEQUATE ALPHABET In an ideal world, each letter would represent one sound: one letter, one sound. But noooo . . .
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English has redundant and useless sounds: c, q, k luck, account, quick English has 26 letters and 46 sounds 13 spellings for /u/: r u le, b oo t, m o ve, kn ew , d ue , gr ou p, fr ui t, thr ough , rendezv ous , t wo , l ieu , sh oe , man eu ver 9 spellings for /i/ s ee n, r ea d, dec ei ve, fi e ld, rav i ne, p eo ple, am oe ba, C ae sar, k ey
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INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET A set of symbols that represents most sounds Each symbol stands for one sound Note the absence of c and q
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Note the error on the schwa in about.
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PHONEMIC VS . PHONETIC Phone = sound Phonology = the study of the sound system of a language Phoneme = the smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning ( b ad, d ad, mo m , mo p , mop s )
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CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS Vowels -vocal tract remains open Consonants – some degree of constriction in the oral cavity
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Vowels All vowels are voiced Classified according to Lip position – rounded, unrounded (retracted) Tongue position Front Central Back High Mid Low
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Vowels http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phone 2 vowels together are a di ph th ong
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Consonants Produced by constricting the oral cavity Classified according to Manner of articulation Place of articulation Voicing http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phone
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Speech sounds are classified on the basis of: Manner of articulation Degree or type of constriction of airflow Place of articulation Place where constriction occurs Voiced/unvoiced Do the vocal fold vibrate or not? Distinctive features
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course COMD 2081 taught by Professor Domma during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_4 - ARTICULATI ON AND PHONOLOGI CAL DISORDERS...

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