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Chapter_8_rev - Cleft Palate COMD 2081 Overview Cleft...

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Cleft Palate COMD 2081 
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Overview Overview Cleft palate Definition Incidence Anatomy and embryology Causes of clefts Types of clefts Associated problems
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Cleft Palate Defined Cleft Palate Defined Cleft:   An opening in structures that would normally be closed Cleft palate:  An opening in the soft and the hard palate Cleft  lip: An opening in the upper lip Disruption of normal development during the second or third month of gestation Failure of the premaxilla to fuse with the maxillary bone and/or the failure of  the palatine processes to fuse at the midline
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Incidence Incidence Varies by racial and ethnic groups Native Americans > Southeast Asians > European Americans > African  Americans Average incidence is 1 in 750 births CDC reports it is the most common birth defect 1/2 of all clefts have associated syndromes More than 300 syndromes with cleft palate Cleft lip occurs twice as much in males Cleft palate occurs more in females
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Hard Palate Hard Palate Separates the nose and mouth Maxillae:   Pair of large facial bones that form the hard palate and upper jaw Alveolar process : Outer edge of maxillary bones Primary palate : In embryonic development, the upper lip and alveolar process  are identified as the primary palate Secondary palate (palatine process) : Central plate-like portion of maxillary  bones Premaxilla:  Small triangular bone under nose
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Soft Palate Soft Palate Soft palate (velum):   Group of muscles between the oropharynx and nasopharynx Uvula:   Small cone-shaped tip of velum Pharynx:  An irregular tube consisting of: Oropharynx: behind the mouth Nasopharynx: behind the nasal cavities Velopharyngeal port:  Space between the soft palate and the back of the throat
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Soft Palate Muscles Soft Palate Muscles Tensor palatini: Stretches the soft palate Levator palatini: Elevates the soft palate Two muscles lower the soft palate: Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus
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Embryonic Growth of Facial  Embryonic Growth of Facial  Structures Structures Cleft lips and palates develop because of disrupted embryonic and fetal growth of  the facial muscles Cleft palates often occur during the 7th to the 10th week of pregnancy (embryonic  period) The most sensitive period of embryonic growth is from the 4th to the 6th week Palatal shelves move towards each other and fuse from front to back between the 8th  and the 9th week See Fig. 8.5 in book (p. 282)
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What Causes Clefts?
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