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ALD 320 Unit 4 - ALD 320 Unit 4 Lecture Day 1 1 How...

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ALD 320 - Unit 4 Lecture Day 1 1. How Retrieval Works a. Retrieval is more effective when related pieces of information are stored together b. Spreading Activation: activation isn’t limited to what you’re currently thinking about, spreads to other areas of knowledge i. Daydreaming, trace steps ii. Depression 2. Retrieval Cues a. Identity Cue i. Identical to what you are trying to retrieve ii. E.g. recognition tasks b. Associate Cues i. Related to what you are trying to retrieve ii. E.g. category names (organization, short answer vs. multiple choice) c. Frames i. Organizational structure to guide retrieval ii. E.g. KCAASE for Bloom’s Taxonomy 3. Encoding Specificity a. Idea that information is stored within the context that it happened b. E.g. sitting in the same seats, placing self in environment in which it is learned c. Contextual Cues i. Environmental cues that most people aren’t even aware of and they have stored this information close to what they are trying to store ii. Smells are some of the most powerful iii. State-dependent memory: marijuana cigarettes correlation with memory, same with alcohol (only mildly)
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iv. Mood-congruent memory 4. Construction in Retrieval (or Reconstruction) a. Flashbulb memories: vivid recall about emotion-laden events b. The Power of Suggestion: Effects of Subsequently Presented Information i. Misinformation Effect: Distortions in recall after receiving inaccurate information ii. Loftus studies (car speed) c. Constructing entirely new memories i. False memories: never happened but logical d. Remembering earlier recollections i. Narratives can be constructive and help us to remember 5. Value of Repetition and Review a. Distributed practice vs. massed practice
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