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Unformatted text preview: ALD 320: Lecture 1 January 25, 2011 1. Escape and Avoidance Learning a. Escape: the process of acquiring a response that terminates an aversive stimulus (my dog ate my homework) b. Active avoidance: organism must actively make a particular response to void an aversive event (studying to avoid a failing grade) c. Passive avoidance: organism learns that not making a particular response allows them to avoid an aversive event (students who struggle with math rarely enroll in math) 2. Extinguishing Avoidance Responses (Reducing Fears) a. Often healthy, sometimes harmful b. Phobias are irrational fears, more than average c. Methods i. Extinction: stop completely, cold turkey ii. Counterconditioning or Systematic Desensitization: giving less and less each time iii. Prevent Avoidance Response: flooding, just as effective 3. Punishment a. Something that reduces the frequency of a behavior b. Punishment I (positive punishment) i. Presenting a stimulus after a response ii. Spanking or a failing grade c. Punishment II (negative punishment) i. Removing a stimulus after a response ii. Losing a privilege or being fined 4. Misuses of Punishment a. May suppress rather than eliminate behavior b. May actually be reinforcing i. Behavioral contrast: behavior may increase in situation where it is not punished (going somewhere else to do what not allowed at home) c. Response-punishment contingency may be lost; one does not know what punishment is for (dog making a mess, hitting) i. Corporal punishment must be done with contiguity ii. Bullying example, fighting back d. May elicit undesirable emotional responses: screaming, less physical relationship, psychological punishment e. May lead to escape and avoidance behaviors f. May lead to aggression g. Does not show correct behavior...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course ALD 320 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '08