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ALD 327 - ALD 327 Lecture 1 Janua ry 25 2011 1 Escape and...

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ALD 327: Lecture 1 January 25, 2011 1. Escape and Avoidance Learning a. Escape: the process of acquiring a response that terminates an aversive stimulus (my dog ate my homework) b. Active avoidance: organism must actively make a particular response to void an aversive event (studying to avoid a failing grade) c. Passive avoidance: organism learns that not making a particular response allows them to avoid an aversive event (students who struggle with math rarely enroll in math) 2. Extinguishing Avoidance Responses (Reducing Fears) a. Often healthy, sometimes harmful b. Phobias are irrational fears, more than average c. Methods i. Extinction: stop completely, cold turkey ii. Counterconditioning or Systematic Desensitization: giving less and less each time iii. Prevent Avoidance Response: flooding, just as effective 3. Punishment a. Something that reduces the frequency of a behavior b. Punishment I (positive punishment) i. Presenting a stimulus after a response ii. Spanking or a failing grade
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c. Punishment II (negative punishment) i. Removing a stimulus after a response ii. Losing a privilege or being fined 4.
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