Chapter 5 summary - Chapter 5: Civil Rights The Struggle...

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Chapter 5: Civil Rights The Struggle for Civil Rights Civil Rights: obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies as well as of other agencies With adoption of the 14 th Amendment in 1868, civil rights became part of the Constitution: “equal protection of the laws” o Known as “equal protection clause” o Discimination: use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion By accepting the institution of slavery, the Founders embraced a system fundamentally at odds with the “Blessings of Liberty” promised in the Constitution o Decision set the stage for African Americans to struggle to achieve full citizenship o Caused women to create a separate sphere for government action, public activities Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement Movement began in 1830s, identified with writing of William Lloyd Garrison Slavery already eliminated in the North but racist opinions held Formed two political parties o Liberty Party: staunchly antislavery party o Free Soil Party: larger but more moderate party that sought primarily to restrict the spread of slavery into new western territories Dred Scott v. Sandford o Split the country deeply o Held that Scott had no due process rights because as a slave he was his master’s permanent property regardless of being taken to a free territory The Link to the Women’s Rights Movement Started at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
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o Discuss and formulate plans to advance the political and social rights of women o Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions : most controversial provision was the call for the right to vote New York passed the Married Women’s Property Act to restore the right of a married woman to own property Civil War Amendments to the Constitution Thirteenth Amendment: abolished slavery Fourteenth Amendment: guaranteed equal protection and due process Fifteenth Amendment: guaranteed voting rights for African American men During Reconstruction, two black senators were elected from MS and fourteen African Americas were elected to the House of Representatives between 1869 and 1877 o Black citizens were in the Republican party, secured ratification of the amendments for black rights Compromise of 1877 o Southern Democrats agreed to allow the Rep. Rutherford B. Hayes become president in exchange for the northern Reps. Dropping their support for civil liberties and political participation for AAs o “Jim Crow” laws: laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against AAs o Led to segregation and criminalization of interracial marriage Women also began pressing for the right to vote after the Civil War o 1872: Susan B. Anthony and other women were arrested in NY for illegally registering and voting in the national election Civil Rights and the Supreme Court: “Separate but Equal”
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Chapter 5 summary - Chapter 5: Civil Rights The Struggle...

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