IP - The Internet Protocol Communication Networks Kang Xi,...

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1 The Internet Protocol Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 2 Before IP Different networks are running different protocols No global addressability Needs application layer gateways (ALGs) Loss of semantics Hard to deploy new applications Complicated end-to-end diagnose Hard for routing adjustment A 4 B C D
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 3 Universal Solution: IP
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 4 IP: the Role IP TCP UDP HTTP FTP SMTP APPLICATIONS LLC 802.3 802.11 SONET ATM GFP HDLC
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 5 Global Addressing IP allows every station to own a unique address/ ID, which can be identified/located in the entire network 32-bit address: 192.168.10.11 Src/Dst address in each IP packet Forward each packet according to the address Ver HeadLen Type of Service Datagram Len ID Flag Offset Time-to-Live Upper Protocol Checksum Source Address Destination Address Options
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How to manage IP addresses? Think about telephone numbers Do we RANDOMLY assign telephone numbers? 718-260-3504 Area code – exchange code – local number, why? Hierarchical structure. IP address has 32 bits, how should we organize this huge (2^32) address space? Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 6
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 7 IP Address
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 8 Example: Class C Address 1 Host (8 bits) Net (21 bits) 1 0 110 indicates a class C address 2^21 network addresses 254 hosts 8 bits: 0--255 0 is for network address 255 is for broadcast
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Subnets The host ID can be further divided into two parts <network><subnet><host> host=zeros: not assigned to any station. It means “this network” host=all ones: not assigned to any station. It means “all hosts in this network”. Refer RFC950, page 6. Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 9
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 10 Example In windows, try dos command “ipconfig /all” Try google IPcalc
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 11 Routing Using Subnets
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Communication Networks © Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 12 Time to Live If there is a flaw in the routing tables, there may be a loop
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IP - The Internet Protocol Communication Networks Kang Xi,...

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