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Chapter 3 - Chapter3 AbnormalPsychology Dr.Coles Spring2011...

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Chapter 3 Abnormal Psychology Dr. Coles Spring 2011
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2 Causes and Risk Factors for  Abnormal Behavior Study of the causes and risk factors for  abnormal behavior includes: Necessary, sufficient, and contributory causes Feedback and bidirectionality in abnormal  behavior Diathesis-stress models
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3 Necessary, Sufficient, and  Contributory Causes Etiology the causal pattern of abnormal behavior Necessary cause –  must exist for a disorder to occur Sufficient cause guarantees the occurrence of a disorder Contributory cause increases the probability of developing a  disorder
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4 Necessary, Sufficient, and  Contributory Causes It is important to distinguish between  distal   causal factors and  proximal  (immediate)  causal factors reinforcing  contributory cause maintains  maladaptive behavior that is already  occurring
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5 Figure 3.1: Abnormal Behavior:  Types of Causes
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6 Feedback and Bidirectionality in  Abnormal Behavior In the study of abnormal psychology, it  can be difficult to specify which conditions  are causes and which are effects Effects can serve as feedback that in turn  influence the causes Influences can be two-way, i.e.  bidirectional
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7 Diathesis-Stress Models Diathesis relatively distal necessary or contributory cause  that is not sufficient to cause the disorder Stress the response of an individual to demands  perceived as taxing Diathesis-stress models involve a combination of  diathesis and stress to cause the disorder
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8 Diathesis-Stress Models Protective factors influences that modify a person’s response  to environmental stressors, making  adverse consequences less likely Resilience the ability to adapt successfully to even  very difficult circumstances
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9 Figure 3.2:  Diathesis-Stress Model
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10 Viewpoints for Understanding  the Causes of Abnormal Behavior Viewpoints:  Help professionals organize observations Provide systems of thought Suggest areas of focus Viewpoints are theoretical constructions  devised to orient psychologists in the  study of abnormal behavior Many theorists are pushing for a more  integrative  biopsychosocial  viewpoint
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11 The Biological Viewpoint and  Biological Causal Factors Traditional biological viewpoint focuses  on mental disorders as diseases But today many people holding this  viewpoint acknowledge psychosocial  and sociocultural causal factors play a  role as well
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12 The Biological Viewpoint and  Biological Causal Factors Many conditions  temporarily  disrupt  information-processing capabilities of  the brain
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13 The Biological Viewpoint and  Biological Causal Factors
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