Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Chapter6 AbnormalPsychology Spring2011...

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Chapter 6 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011 Erika Coles, Ph.D.
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2 The Fear and Anxiety  Response Patterns It is difficult to completely distinguish  between fear and anxiety Historically, the distinction has centered  on whether the source of danger is  obvious  Obvious danger leads to fear Less obvious danger leads to anxiety
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3 The Fear and Anxiety  Response Patterns Fear  or  panic  is a basic emotion that  involves activation of the “fight-or-flight”  response of the autonomic nervous  system
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4 The Fear and Anxiety  Response Patterns Anxiety  is a general feeling of  apprehension about possible danger Anxiety is more oriented to the future and  more diffuse than fear It has cognitive/subjective, physiological, and  behavioral components
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5 Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and  Their Commonalities Anxiety disorders  have unrealistic,  irrational fears or anxieties of disabling  intensity as their most obvious  manifestation
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The DSM-IV-TR recognizes seven primary  types of anxiety disorders: Specific phobia Social phobia Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia Generalized anxiety disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Acute stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder 6 Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and  Their Commonalities
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7 Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and  Their Commonalities There are some important similarities  among The basic biological causes of these disorders The basic psychological causes of these  disorders The effective treatments for these disorders
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8 Specific Phobias specific phobia  is a strong and persistent fear  that is recognized as excessive or unreasonable  and is triggered by a specific object or situation Subtypes identified in DSM-IV-TR include: Animal Natural environment Blood-injection-injury Situational Other
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9 Prevalence, Age of Onset,  and Gender Differences Quite common mental disorders Lifetime prevalence rate of about 12% More common in women than men Blood-injection-injury phobia occurs in  about 3-4% of the population The age of onset for different phobias  varies widely
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10 Psychological Causal Factors Psychoanalytic viewpoint—a defense  against anxiety stemming from repressed  id impulses Learned behavior/classical conditioning Vicarious conditioning Individual differences in learning Evolutionary preparedness
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Biological Causal Factors Genetics Monozygotic twins are more likely to share  phobias than dizygotic twins Temperament Behaviorally inhibited temperament is linked  to higher vulnerability to phobias 11
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12 Treatments Exposure therapy is the treatment of 
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Chapter 6 - Chapter6 AbnormalPsychology Spring2011...

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