Psych 1201 - Julien pp. 232-251: NICOTINE Introduction...

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Julien pp. 232-251: NICOTINE Introduction Nicotine, caffeine, and ethyl alcohol are the three most widely used drugs in the U.S. Nicotine has no therapeutic applications in medicine 4.3 million people die from cigarette smoking every year Nicotine is the primary active ingredient in tobacco Cigarette smoking releases more than 4000 compounds while nicotine may have some adverse effects its smoking device, the cigarette, is responsible for much of its toxicity Most cigarettes contain between .5 and 2.0 milligrams of nicotine Dose is easily titrated: frequency of breathes, depth of inhalation, time smoke held in lungs etc. Pharmacokinetics Nicotine is absorbed from every site on or in the body 1. Lungs 2. Buccal and nasal mucosa 3. Skin 4. Gastrointestinal tact From the lungs etc. nicotine particles (tars) are absorbed into the blood and easily penetrate the blood brain barrier Other particles are metabolized by the CYP2A6 enzyme and excreted as the metabolite cotinine Effects on the Brian Nicotine activates specific acetylcholine receptors in the brain which are located on the presynaptic nerve terminals of dopamine, acetylcholine, and glutamine- secreting neurons Activations facilitates the release of transmitters and increases their actions in the brain most importantly it leads to an increase in dopamine levels Increased dopamine is the desired effects and the cause of the “rush” Tolerance and Dependence Nicotine does not appear to induce biological tolerance It does induce physiological and psychological dependence Withdraw is usually not life threatening but can last for months Withdraw symptoms include 1. Craving 2. Irritability
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3. Anxiety 4. Anger 5. Difficulty concentrating 6. Increased appetite Arguably the hardest drug to quit Toxicity Cardiovascular disease Pulmonary disease Cancer Therapy Counseling Sustained release bupropion Nicotine gum Nicotine inhaler Transdermal nicotine path Gahlinger, pp. 191-193: Tobacco 90% of lung cancers are caused by smoking Began as a wild plant in the Americas, was used medically and ritually and considered sacred Christopher Columbus brought news of the seeds to Europeans smoking became a casual pastime Jean Nicot isolated the active ingredient (nicotine) in 1828 Smoking rates in the U.S. peaked in the 1960’s when 40% of adults were smokers Nicotine is considered the most addictive drug ever discovered Julien pp. 556-587: Tetrahydrocannabinol Introduction Names for cannabis include: marijuana, hashish, charas, bhang, ganja, and sinsemilla Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) comes from the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana) and is the major psychoactive ingredient THC has a mild-sedative-hypnotic effect It binds to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain and mimic the action of anandamide , a naturally forming endogenous cannabinoid History
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Psych 1201 - Julien pp. 232-251: NICOTINE Introduction...

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