Introduction - on the presynaptic nerve terminals of...

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Introduction Nicotine, caffeine, and ethyl alcohol are the three most widely used drugs in the U.S. Nicotine has no therapeutic applications in medicine 4.3 million people die from cigarette smoking every year Nicotine is the primary active ingredient in tobacco Cigarette smoking releases more than 4000 compounds while nicotine may have some adverse effects its smoking device, the cigarette, is responsible for much of its toxicity Most cigarettes contain between .5 and 2.0 milligrams of nicotine Dose is easily titrated: frequency of breathes, depth of inhalation, time smoke held in lungs etc. Pharmacokinetics Nicotine is absorbed from every site on or in the body 1. Lungs 2. Buccal and nasal mucosa 3. Skin 4. Gastrointestinal tact From the lungs etc. nicotine particles (tars) are absorbed into the blood and easily penetrate the blood brain barrier Other particles are metabolized by the CYP2A6 enzyme and excreted as the metabolite cotinine Effects on the Brian Nicotine activates specific acetylcholine receptors in the brain which are located
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Unformatted text preview: on the presynaptic nerve terminals of dopamine, acetylcholine, and glutamine-secreting neurons • Activations facilitates the release of transmitters and increases their actions in the brain most importantly it leads to an increase in dopamine levels • Increased dopamine is the desired effects and the cause of the “rush” Tolerance and Dependence • Nicotine does not appear to induce biological tolerance • It does induce physiological and psychological dependence • Withdraw is usually not life threatening but can last for months • Withdraw symptoms include 1. Craving 2. Irritability 3. Anxiety 4. Anger 5. Difficulty concentrating 6. Increased appetite • Arguably the hardest drug to quit Toxicity • Cardiovascular disease • Pulmonary disease • Cancer Therapy • Counseling • Sustained release bupropion • Nicotine gum • Nicotine inhaler • Transdermal nicotine path...
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Introduction - on the presynaptic nerve terminals of...

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