Chapter 12 – Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

Chapter 12 – Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

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Chapter 12 – Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Prescriptions for psychoactive medication for youth has risen markedly over past 10 years Most prescribed off-label The same psychological disorders that occur in children and adolescents are those commonly seen in adults, i.e. anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, ADHD Behavioral and Aggressive Disorders Bullying is predictive of anti-social and depressive behaviors Psychostimulants can reduce antisocial behaviors in children Best efficacy found for two classes of drugs: neuromodulator anticonvulsants, and newer atypical antipsychotics o Valproic acid effective with ODD (oppositional defiant disorder) and explosive temper youth o Atypical antipsychotics appear to be safe and effective Studies in the treatment of these disorders are in infancy Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism: deficits in social interaction and speech/communication skills, repetitive behavior, and restricted interests Traditional antipsychotics are most studied and most effective drugs of treatment o haloperidol Newer atypical antipsychotics are effective, and more tolerated than traditional o Risperidone, olanzapine Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants appear to work with adults, not child studies Psychostimulants had mixed effects Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Most common psychological disorder of childhood Treated with stimulant medication Persists into adulthood in 40-60 percent Stimulant treatment: o Improves behavior and learning ability in 60 to 80 percent
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This document was uploaded on 04/06/2011.

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Chapter 12 – Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

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