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Intro_to_cell_signaling - Cell signaling evolved early in...

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Cell signaling evolved early in the history of life Yeast have two mating types: a and α Type a cells secrete a- factor – chemical signal Type α cells secrete α - factor Binding of factors to opposite type cells facilitates mating (cell response) Formation of shmoos
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The steps by which a chemical signal is converted to a specific cell response is called a signal transduction pathway
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Two types of signals Endocrine signaling Produced by hormones Exp. Insulin , a protein that controls the regulation of blood glucose levels Local signaling Autocrine – from same cell Paracrine – from adjacent cells ** A particular chemical signal can act as both a local regulator and a hormone**
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TGF β TGF β
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Three stages of signaling Signal reception Signal transduction Cellular response For a chemical signal to elicit a soeicifc response, the target cell must possess a signaling system for the signal.
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Signal Reception
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