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Lecture_4 - Basic Biochemistry Review 1 Biological...

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Basic Biochemistry Review 1. Biological Macromolecules a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Protein d. Nucleic Acid
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Most macromolecules are polymers Polymers = large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits Molecules are formed by two types of reactions condensation - form covalent bonds with net removal of H 2 O hydrolysis - break covalent bonds by addition of H 2 O
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Carbohydrates Organic molecules made up of sugars and their polymers Building blocks called monosaccharides Monosaccharides by definition are a simple sugar in which C,H and O occur in the ration of CH 2 O
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Four characteristics of a sugar 1. A -OH group is attached to each carbon but one, which is double bonded to an oxygen 2. Size of carbon skeleton varies from 3 to 7 carbons 3. In aqueous solution many monosaccharides form rings. 4. Spatial arrangement around asymmetric carbons may vary.
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Characteristics 1, 2, 3 Characteristic 4
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Disaccharides
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Polysaccharides
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Polysaccharides Two important biological functions Energy storage (starch and glycogen) Starch - glucose polymer that is a storage polysaccharide in plants Glycogen - glucose polymer that is storage polysaccharide in animals Structural support (cellulose and chitin) Cellulose - structural component of plant cell walls; differs from starch in glycosidic linkage ( β 1-4) Chitin - structural polysaccharide that is a polymer of an amino acid sugar; forms exoskeleton of arthropods
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Lipids Diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water, but will dissolve in nonpolar solvents Important groups are: fats phospholipids steroids
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Fats Fats are macromolecules composed of: Glycerol - a three carbon alcohol Fatty acid Bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl is an ester linkage Characteristics of fats: water insoluble source of variation is the fatty acid composition fatty acids in a fat may all be the same or may differ vary in length vary in the number and location of carbon-carbon double bonds
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